Trams in Munich

The Munich tramway (German: Straßenbahn München) is the tramway network for the city of Munich in Germany. Today it is operated by the municipally owned Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft (the Munich Transport Company, or MVG) and is known officially and colloquially as the Tram. Previous operators have included Société Anonyme des Tramways de Munich, the Münchner Trambahn-Aktiengesellschaft, the Städtische Straßenbahnen and the Straßenbahn München.

Munich tramway
Tram-Logo.svg
Tram München - Baureihen P, R und S - Betriebshof Einsteinstraße - April 2014.jpg
Class P (left), Class R and Class S tram
Overview
LocaleMunich, Bavaria, Germany
Transit typeTram
Number of lines1952: 21
1964: 21
1972: 18 + 3 Olympic special routes
1984: 11
1996: 9
2010: 11
2011: 11
2012: 13
2019: 14[1]
Number of stations165[2]
Daily ridership284,900 (2012)
Annual ridership104 million (2012)[2]
Operation
Began operation1876 (horsecar)[2]
1895 (electric trams)[2]
Operator(s)Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft
Number of vehicles106[2]
Technical
System length1952: 120 km (75 mi)
1964: 135 km (84 mi)
1972: 120 km (75 mi)
1984: 83 km (52 mi)
1996: 68 km (42 mi)
2010: 75 km (47 mi)
2011: 80 km (50 mi)
from 2016: 83 km (52 mi)[1]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)
Electrification750 Volts
Average speed19.3 km/h (12.0 mph)[2]

The tram network interconnects with the MVG's bus network, the Munich U-Bahn and the Munich S-Bahn, all of which use a common tariff as part of the Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (Munich Transport and Tariff Association, or MVV) transit area.

As of 2012, the daytime tram network comprises 13 lines[2][3] and is 79 kilometres (49 mi) long with 165 stops.[2] There is also a night tram service with four routes.[2] The network is operated by 106 trams (as of 2012),[2] and transported 98 million people in 2010[4] and 104 million people in 2012.[2]

HistoryEdit

 
A type A2.2 tram from 1901 in the MVG museum
 
A type M4.65 tram from the 1950s in the Deutsches Museum

The tramway started in 1876, with a horsecar service.[2] The first tramways extended from Karlsplatz (Stachus), which remains one of central nodes of Munich's tram network. Two years later, the Société Anonyme des Tramways de Munich was founded. In 1882, the Münchner Trambahn-Aktiengesellschaft (MTAG) was founded.[2][5]

Electric trams were introduced by Union-Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft in 1895.[2][6] In 1900, the last horsecar was taken out of service.[2] In 1907, MTAG was taken over by the city, and changed its name to Städtische Straßenbahnen. In 1919, the municipal agency Münchner Straßenbahnen was established. After World War II ended in 1945, only twenty tram lines remained; of 444 trams, only 168 were in operational condition. In 1956, the first new tram line after the war was opened.[2]

The 1972 Munich Olympic Games presaged a major expansion of public transport in the city. In 1965, construction of the Munich U-Bahn, the city's rapid transit system, was started. It opened in 1971, the same year as the transit authority MVV was founded. In 1972 a new S-Bahn network opened that, like the U-Bahn, was carried in new tunnels under the city centre. As these networks grew, they seemed to threaten the tram network, with extensive line closures in favour of the new modes.[5]

Such closures continued into the 1990s, but in 1991 the city council passed a plan to upgrade and modernize the tramway, as the trams were seen to be a better fit to expected passenger flows on many routes. Three years later, Class R2 low-floor trams were introduced, along with a night network. These were followed, in 1999, by the larger class R3 trams. In 2001, the voltage on which the trams operate was increased from 600 to 750 V. The following year the MVG was formed.[2][5]

In 2009 the brand new route 23 was opened.[2] This route acts as a feeder route for U-Bahn lines U3 and U6, to which it connects in an elaborate terminus above Münchner Freiheit U-Bahn station. The line has no interchanges with other tram routes, but is linked to the rest of the tram network by a connecting track that carries no public service.[5] At the same time, February 2009, class S trams, built to the Stadler Variobahn design, were introduced.

In December 2011 an extension was opened from the previous Effnerplatz terminus to St. Emmeram.[2] The extension was 4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) long and added seven new tram stops to the network. Tram route 16 was extended to serve St. Emmeram, with knock-on effects on routes 17, 18 and 27.[5][7]

In December 2012 new routes 22 and 28 were opened.[8]

In December 2013, the extension of route 19, from its previous terminus at Pasing-Marienplatz to München-Pasing railway station, was opened in order to enable better interchange with S-Bahn and long-distance train services.[9]

In December 2016, route 25 was extended to the east of the city, from Max Weber Platz to Berg am Laim S-Bahn station. The extension comprises 2.8 kilometres (1.7 mi) of segregated alignment with seven new stops, and a journey time of approximately eight minutes. The area served is undergoing redevelopment.[10]

OperationEdit

VehiclesEdit

The tram system uses five types of tram:

  • The Class P tram is a two-section high-floor articulated tram carried on two four-wheeled trucks, usually operating with a similar articulated trailer tram. They were built by Rathgeber between 1967 and 1969. One two-car set carries 315 passengers, with 151 seated. As of 2011, six sets remained in service, of which two are reserved for special services.[needs update] The Class P tram was withdrawn in November 2014 for a short time.[11]
  • The Class R2 tram is a three-section 100% low-floor articulated tram carried on six axles. The trams were built by Adtranz to their GT6N design between 1994 and 1997. Each tram has a capacity of 157 passengers, of whom 58 are seated. As of 2011,[needs update] 68 trams are in service, operating on all lines.[12]
  • The Class R3 tram is a four-section 100% low-floor articulated tram carried on eight axles. The trams were built by Adtranz to their GT8N2 design between 1999 and 2001. Each tram has a capacity of 218 passengers, of whom 67 are seated. As of 2011,[needs update] 20 trams are in service, operating on lines 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, and also 25 on school holidays and weekend.[13]
  • The Class S tram is a five-section 100% low-floor articulated tram carried on six axles. The trams were built by Stadler to their Variobahn design. They have a capacity of 221 passengers, of whom 75 are seated. Four trams of this design were delivered in 2011, and a further 10 are on order, with delivery expected in 2011.[14][15][needs update]
  • The Class T trams are 100% low-floor articulated trams with two-, three- or four sections. They were built by Siemens to their Avenio design. The first tram was delivered to Munich in November 2012.[16] The first Avenios entered service on 17 September 2014 on line 19.[17]

A number of older trams are still owned by the MVG. Some are exhibited in the MVG Museum, and may occasionally be seen on special services. Other Munich trams are displayed in the 'Verkehrszentrum' (Transport Centre) of the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

Class MEdit

The first four M1.62 trams and two m1.62 trailers were delivered by Rathgeber and Westwaggon in 1949 and 1950.[18] Based on the experience with the M1.62, eight M2.63 trams were delivered from 1951 to 1953. These trams had a different door arrangement than its predecessor.[18] Additionly, eight m2.65 trailers were delivered by Rathgeber and Westwaggon in 1951 and 1952.[18] From 1953 to 1955, 100 type M3.64 trams were built by Rathgeber.[18] From 1956 to 1959, 98 more M4.65 trams were delivered, and from 1963 to 1965, 75 M5.65 trams were delivered.[18] The M tram fleet also had a total of 191 m3 and m4 trailers.[18] In 1975, the entire type M2 fleet was withdrawn due to the reduction of the tram network.[citation needed] The last day of regular services with type M trams was on 7 December 1998.[citation needed]

Class PEdit

Two experimental articulated trams, designated as P1.65, were built by Rathgeber in 1959 and 1960. Since two conductors were required for them, the P1.65 were too uneconomical and no further sets were ordered.[18] In 1965, two prototype articulated trams were delivered by Rathgeber,[18] built under license from Hansa Waggonbau of Bremen.[citation needed] They were designated as P2.12 and P2.13. After the prototypes proved successful, between 1966 and 1968 a total of 42 P3.16 trams were built.[18] A total of 40 p2.14, p2.15 and p3.17 trailers were built by Rathgeber between 1964 and 1968.[18] The type P2 trams were decommissioned in 1982 (motored cars) and 1989 (trailers).[citation needed] Since the 1990s, after delivery of the successor type R3.3, the P3 trains are retired.[citation needed] Between 2001 and 2003, many cars were sold to Romania for use on the Timişoara tram system and the Bucharest tram system. Other trains were scrapped or given to private interested parties. After temporarily only one car had been used in regular service, six P3.16 cars and five trailers were in regular use again in mid-2014.[citation needed] One motor-car was preserved as an inoperable exhibit at the MVG Museum. It was disassembled as a spare parts donor in early 2016.[citation needed]

Class REdit

Three prototypes of a three-section low-floor tram of the Adtranz low floor design were ordered for evaluation.[citation needed] The three cars were delivered 1990/91 and formed the R1.1. series. The cars had two joints and three self-supporting steel car bodies. The three R1.1 cars are no longer part of MVG's fleet since they were returned to the manufacturer.[citation needed] Between 1994 and 1997, a total of 70 three-section low-floor trams were procured, designated as R2.2 series. Towards the end of the 1990s, additional low-floor vehicles with a higher capacity than the R2.2 series were purchased. 20 R3.3 series trams were delivered between 1999 and 2001. Although the R3.3 is based directly on the R2.2, it features a different front design and more doors. Since 2010, around 50 R2.2 trains have been refurbished by a subsidiary of Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe.[citation needed]

Class SEdit

 
Class S tram in June 2017

The Class S tram is an articulated tram built by Stadler Rail to its Variobahn design. The five-section 100% low-floor trams have a total length of 33.94 metres. The first delivered S-Tram, number 2301, was used for the first time in Munich on 19 March 2009 for a press tour.

A total of 14 trams were built between 2008 and 2011. The vehicles are designed for 221 passengers each. The top speed is 60 km/h. After numerous technical problems with its running gears, MVG cancelled the further order and switched to Siemens Avenio for their next generation tram, the T1 tram.

Class TEdit

In May 2014, MVG announced a prequalification procedure in which interested manufacturers can submit vehicle designs to the proposals. Due to the increasing ridership, trams were tendered to be abe to operate in multiple, reaching a total length of 48 meters. The double traction trains, which are to consist of two coupled tramways, should provide space for 270 passengers. However, for these trains to be able to travel, the stops still need to be extended. The trams were expected to join the Munich fleet in 2017.[needs update] In October 2015, MVG finally commissioned 22 more Avenio trams from Siemens. Nine two-car and three-car trams were ordered, which can be coupled with each other. Four four-car trams also have been ordered. The contract also includes an option for up to 124 further trams.[19] The 22 new trams will be delivered from mid-2017.[needs update]

NetworkEdit

 
Map of the network
 
A class R2 tram on route 19 at Ostbahnhof
 
A new class S tram on reserved track
 
Tram junction at Kurfuerstenplatz
 
A diverted tram in the extensive, but now little used, Olympic Park tram station

As of 2012, the Munich tram network comprises thirteen daytime routes and four night routes.[2] The tram network totals 79 kilometres (49 mi) of route length,[2] including 55 kilometres (34 mi) of segregated tram lane,[2] with 165 stops.[2][5]

The network is standard gauge track and configured to allow a maximum body width of 2.3 metres (7 ft 7 in). It is electrified using overhead lines at 750 VDC. As all Munich trams are single ended, facilities for turning trams, such as turning loops or wye tracks, are provided at all termini and strategic intermediate points.[2][5][20]

Daytime routesEdit

The daytime route network operates between 04:45 and 01:30, and comprises the following routes:[3]

Line Route Stops Time
  Scheidplatz     - Hohenzollernplatz   - Leonrodplatz - Rotkreuzplatz   - Romanplatz 17 21 min
  Max-Weber-Platz     - Rosenheimer Platz   - Ostfriedhof - Silberhornstraße   - Wettersteinplatz   - Großhesseloher Brücke 16 24 min
  Romanplatz – DonnersbergerstraßeHackerbrücke  Hauptbahnhof          Sendlinger Tor        Isartor  Max-Weber-Platz     – Herkomerplatz – Effnerplatz — Arabellapark   — St. Emmeram 36 49 min
  Amalienburgstraße – Romanplatz – Donnersbergerstraße – Hackerbrücke  Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz      Sendlinger Tor        Fraunhoferstraße    Mariahilfplatz - Ostfriedhof – Giesing Bahnhof       – Schwanseestraße 29 35 min
  Gondrellplatz – Westendstraße     – Lautensackstraße – Trappentreustraße – Hauptbahnhof Süd          Karlsplatz      Sendlinger Tor        Isartor   – Maxmonument - Tivolistraße – Herkomerplatz – Effnerplatz - Arabellapark   — St. Emmeram (Effnerplatz - St. Emmeram during the peak hours only) 32 41 min
  München-Pasing           – Pasing Marienplatz – Fürstenrieder Straße – Lautensackstraße – Trappentreustraße - Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz      Theatinerstraße   – Maxmonument - MaximilianeumMax-Weber-Platz     - Ostbahnhof     – Kreillerstraße   – St.-Veit-Straße 36 52 min
  Moosach    Westfriedhof   – Leonrodplatz – Hochschule München –Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz       16 22 min
  Westfriedhof   – Leonrodplatz – Hochschule München –Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz       13 17 min
  Hochschule München – Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz       8 9 min
  Münchner Freiheit     — Potsdamer Straße – Parzivalplatz – Schwabinger Tor – Am Münchner Tor – Anni-Albers-Straße – Domagkstraße – Schwabing Nord 7 8 min
  Berg am Laim  Max-Weber-Platz    Rosenheimer Platz   – Ostfriedhof – Silberhornstraße  Wettersteinplatz   – Großhesseloher Brücke - Grünwald, Derbolfinger Platz 22 32 min
  Petuelring  Hohenzollernplatz   – Karolinenplatz – Karlsplatz      Sendlinger Tor         15 19 min
  Scheidplatz    Kurfürstenplatz – Karolinenplatz – Karlsplatz      Sendlinger Tor         12 16 min

Night routesEdit

 
Night line N27 at Südtiroler Straße stop

The night route network operates between 01:30 and 04:30, and comprises the following routes:[21]

Line Route
  Amalienburgstraße – Romanplatz – Donnersbergerstraße – Hackerbrücke  Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz      Sendlinger Tor        Isartor   - Max-Weber-Platz     – Herkomerplatz – Effnerplatz
  München-Pasing           – Pasing Marienplatz – Fürstenrieder Straße – Lautensackstraße – Trappentreustraße - Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz       – Theatinerstraße   – Maxmonument - MaximilianeumMax-Weber-Platz     - Ostbahnhof     – Kreillerstraße   – St.-Veit-Straße
  Moosach    Westfriedhof   – Leonrodplatz – Hauptbahnhof          Karlsplatz      
  Petuelring   - Nordbad - Kurfürstenplatz - Karolinenplatz - Karlsplatz (Stachus) - Sendlinger Tor         - Fraunhoferstraße     - Mariahilfplatz - Ostfriedhof - Silberhornstraße   - Wettersteinplatz   - Südtiroler Platz - Großhesseloher Brücke

Future developmentsEdit

WesttangenteEdit

The new 8.25-kilometre (5.13 mi) Westtangente line is meeting the demand for a crosstown transportation in the west, serving five municipalities: Neuhausen-Nymphenburg, Laim, Sendling-Westpark, Hadern, and Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln. The new line follows mostly the current Metrobus 51[22] and the 1928 tram extension plan.[23][circular reference] The line will have seventeen stops with subway transfer points at Aidenbachstraße station (southern terminus), Holzapfelkreuth station, Laimer Platz station, and München-Laim S-Bahn station along with Tram line 12 and lines 16 and 17 at Romanplatz (northern terminus), Tram line 18 at Agnes-Bernauer-Straße, and Tram line 19 at Ammerseestraße.[24] The passengers can transfer to Tram line 12 for further journey to Schwabing, bypassing the city centre. The line number has not been assigned yet. The €170 million Euro construction approved on 21 March 2018 is expected to begin in 2024 and completed by 2027 the latest.[25][26]

Nordtangente (Englischer Garten)Edit

Another new tram line project in discussion is the Nordtangente (North Tangent) across the Englischer Garten, linking Elisabethplatz (Trams lines 27 and 28) in the west with terminus at Romanplatz and Tivolistraße (Tram line 16) in the east with terminus at St. Emmeram. Additionally, the proposal also examines the possible southern extension of Tram line 23 to connect with the Nordtangente at Martiusstraße and Leopoldstraße intersection and eastern extension of Tram lines 16 and 17 to the Johanneskirchen S-Bahn station at Johanneskirchner Straße and Cosimastraße.[27]

The Englischer Garten tram line was proposed in 1927 but was immediately rejected by the city council.[28] The proposal for the Nordtangente isn't without controversy due to the feasibility of running trams through the busy thoroughfare and potential damage to the environment during the construction and after the service launch.[29] Several buses (MetroBus 54, 58, and 68 as well as local Bus 154) currently serve the 600-metre-long Englischer Garten thoroughfare, adding noise and congestion. Adding the tram line would cause safety hazard for pedestrians and cyclists who in a very large number share the same thoroughfare.[30]

The overhead lines could not be used due to the sensitive nature environment in Englisher Garten and due to many mature trees in close proximity. An initial proposal was to use the specially modified trams that run on batteries across Englisher Garten before reverting to overhead lines outside the park. MVG and Stadler Rail modified one Class S tram with lithium-ion batteries for feasibility runs at Velten near Berlin: this specially modified tram broke the world distance record by running 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) on a test track. The Class S trams delivered to MVG in 2012 are designed to be retrofitted with batteries.

After the success of Initiative M-ein Englischer Garten, a grassroots movement to cover the portion of Mittleren Ring highway in Englischer Garten,[31] the same grassroot movement group proposed a tram tunnel as the most optimal solution, citing the 1926 article in Bayerischen Umschau.[32] The €45 million tram tunnel is gaining traction as most favoured option for several reasons.[33][34] The tram tunnel along with forthcoming Mittleren Ring tunnel would reunite the northern and southern Englischer Garten once again. The tunnel moves the tram and bus traffic underground, removing the noise and congestion. Without the traffic on the thoroughfare, the safety of pedestrians and cyclists is enhanced. As to reduce the construction cost by making tunnels lower in height, the overhead lines would not be installed in the tunnel. The trams would switch to battery power during the travel through tunnel before switching back to the overhead lines outside the park.

Further extensionsEdit

[citation needed]

  • Line 18: Extension to the Blumenau in the West
  • Line 19: Extension to the Michaelibad in the east
  • Hauptbahnhof-Silberhornstraße: Like bus line 58
  • Südtangente: From the Aidenbachstraße or the Waldfriedhof, the planned Westtangente via Harras, Brudermühlstraße and Candidplatz could be connected with the line 25 at the Tegernseer Landstraße and on line 17 at the Giesing station.
  • Line 19: Extension in the east to Trudering, from there possibly to Haar.
  • The line 17 south of Stadelheimer, Nauplia and Seybothstraße could be used instead of U-Bahn line U1 from Mangfallplatz to Krankenhaus Harlaching or the Großhesseloherbrücke. Since this route is currently served (2016) by a bus in the 20-minute clock is sufficiently unlikely.
  • From the route to St. Emmeram to one of the S-Bahn stations Englschalking or Johanneskirchen.
  • Alte Messe - Nordbad: New route from the Schwanthalerhöhe station via Heimeran- and Schwanthalerstraße to the main station, where the route could be linked to the planning of Hauptbahnhof-Silberhornstraße. The route continues northwards through the Seidl and Schleissheimer Straße to the turning wye at the Nordbad.
  • From Munich Moosach station to Moosach or from the Westfriedhof to Untermenzing station
  • Line 23: Extension to the south to the planned north-tangente at the Giselastraße. From there, the line could be taken to the Elisabethplatz and further towards the city center.
  • The extension of the tram from St. Emmeram to Unterföhring, because of the nature of the bridge to be used over the Foehringer Ring and the But the road situation in Unterföhring is very unlikely.
  • Olympia-Einkaufszentrum - St. Emmeram: New tangent in the north of Munich (like bus line 50)
  • Ostbahnhof-Neuperlach: Like bus line 55

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b http://www.tundria.com/trams/DEU/Munich-2016.shtml
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "MVG in figures" (PDF). mvg-mobil.de. Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH (MVG) Marketing. June 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Tramnetz München" [Munich Tram Network] (PDF) (in German). MVV. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  4. ^ "MVG: wieder Fahrgastrekord bei U-Bahn, Bus und Tram; Zuwachs in allen Betriebszweigen" [MVG: Passenger record at U-Bahn, bus and tram; growth in all operating sectors] (PDF) (in German). MVG. 27 May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Pulling, Neil (November 2010). "System Factfile 38: Munich, Germany". Tramways & Urban Transit. Ian Allan Ltd / Light Rail Transit Association. pp. 419–421.
  6. ^ Merte, Jens. "Union Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft UEG". www.lokhersteller.de. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Tram St. Emmeram" (in German). MVG. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  8. ^ "Fahrplanwechsel am 9. Dezember 2012 - MVG auf Wachstumskurs: Angebot wird 2013 um weitere 1,6% gesteigert" [Timetable change on 9 December 2012 - MVG on growth course: Supply is increased 2013 by further 1.6%] (in German). MVG. December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  9. ^ "Munich opens Pasing tram extension". railjournal.com. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  10. ^ Vosman, Quintus (13 December 2016). "Munich tram network reaches Berg am Laim". International Railway Journal. Archived from the original on 15 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  11. ^ "Tram Typ P" [Tram Type P] (in German). MVG. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  12. ^ "Tram Typ R 2" [Tram Type R 2] (in German). MVG. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  13. ^ "Tram Typ R 3" [Tram Type R 3] (in German). MVG. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  14. ^ "Tram Typ S" [Tram Type S] (in German). MVG. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  15. ^ "Stadler sets new catenary-free world record". Tramways & Urban Transit. Ian Allan Ltd / Light Rail Transit Association. July 2011. p. 251.
  16. ^ "Siemens unveils first Avenio tram in München". Railway Gazette. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  17. ^ "New trams enter service [in München]". Today's Railways Europe (228). Platform 5 Publishing, Ltd. December 2014. p. 15. ISSN 1354-2753.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sappel, Albrecht; Jeanmaire-dit-Quartier, Claude (1979). Städtische Strassenbahn München [The Trams of Munich] (in German). Villigen: Verlag Eisenbahn. pp. 186–188, 197, 198, 206–208, 221–223, 234–236, 238–241, 383–385, 391–393, 396–399, 406–408. ISBN 3-85649-042-6.
  19. ^ Budach, Dirk (15 April 2019). "Ganz kurz: Die neuen Münchner Avenios im Einsatz" [Very short: Munichs new Avenios in service]. Urban Transport Magazine (in German). Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  20. ^ Stadler Rail. "Niederflurstraßenbahn Typ Variobahn für die Stadtwerke München GmbH (SWM)" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 3 April 2009.[dead link]
  21. ^ "MVG Nachtlinien" (in German). MVG. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  22. ^ "Streckenverlauf der Buslinie 51" (in German). Nahverkehr in und für Deutschland.
  23. ^ "Karte Straßenbahn München - Generallinienplan 1928".
  24. ^ "Westtangente" (in German). MVG. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  25. ^ "Tram Westtangente Stadtrat Gibt Grünes Licht" (in German). muenchen.de. 8 March 2018.
  26. ^ "Tram-Westtangente in Planung" (in German). Charivari 95.5. 8 March 2018.
  27. ^ "Nordtangente - Tram Englischer Garten, Tram Nordtangente / Gartentram" (in German). MVG. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  28. ^ Nina Job (13 October 2017). "Tram durch den Englischen Garten: Die Debatte vor 90 Jahren" (in German). Abendzeitung München.
  29. ^ Myriam Siegert (13 December 2018). "Tram durch den Englischen Garten spaltet das Viertel" (in German). Abendzeitung München.
  30. ^ "MVG filmt Verkehrsteilnehmer im Englischen Garten" (in German). Abendzeitung München. 7 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Der Tunnel durch den Englischen Garten kommt" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. 28 June 2017.
  32. ^ Michael Lucan (12 July 2018). "Tunnel für die Tram im Englischen Garten?" (in German). Münchner Schaufenster.
  33. ^ Alfred Dürr (13 July 2018). "Zweiter Tunnel soll Einheit des Englischen Gartens bewahren" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung.
  34. ^ Hüseyin Ince (21 February 2019). "Englischer-Garten-Tram: Architekten werben für Tunnel" (in German). Abendzeitung München.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 48°08′54″N 11°27′42″E / 48.1484°N 11.4616°E / 48.1484; 11.4616