Total mesorectal excision

Total mesorectal excision (TME) is a standard surgical technique for treatment of rectal cancer, first described in 1982 by Professor Bill Heald at the UK's Basingstoke District Hospital.[1][2] It is a precise dissection of the mesorectal envelope comprising rectum containing the tumour together with all the surrounding fatty tissue and the sheet of tissue that contains lymph nodes and blood vessels. Dissection is along the avascular alveolar plane between the presacral and mesorectal fascia, described as holy plane (Heald's "holy plane").[3] Dissection along this plane facilitates a straightforward dissection and preserves the sacral vessels and hypogastric nerves and is a sphincter-sparing resection and decreases permanent stoma rates.[4] It is possible to rejoin the two ends of the colon; however, most patients require a temporary ileostomy pouch to bypass the colon, allowing it to heal with less risk of infection, perforation or leakage.[citation needed]

Total mesorectal excision
Specialtycolorectal surgery

TME has become the "gold standard" treatment for rectal cancer Worldwide.[5][6] The operation can be done by open surgery, laparoscopic or Robot-assisted.[7]

For lower down tumours in the middle and lower third of the rectum a new procedure has been developed known as Transanal-Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME). Instead of the dissection via the abdomen TaTME combines an abdominal and transanal endoscopic approach (endoscopic instruments are inserted into the anus) allowing easier dissection of the most difficult part of the surgery deep down in the pelvis (particularly in male patients or patients with visceral obesity or a narrow pelvis). The perceived benefits of this technique may include ease of procedure due to better views, decreased operative time and reduced complications.[8]

An occasional side effect of the operation is the formation and tangling of fibrous bands from near the site of the operation with other parts of the bowel. These can lead to bowel infarction if not operated on.[citation needed]

TME results in a lower recurrence rate than traditional approaches and a lower rate of permanent colostomy. Postoperative recuperation is somewhat increased over competing methods. When practiced with diligent attention to anatomy there is no evidence of increased risk of urinary incontinence or sexual dysfunction.[9] However, there can be partial fecal incontinence and/or "clustering" – a series of urgent trips to the toilet separated by a few minutes, each trip producing only a very small yield.[10] Other long-term bowel dysfunction symptoms may include fecal and gas incontinence, urgency, frequent bowel movements, and difficulty emptying. The symptoms collectively are referred to as low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) and adversely affect quality of life, sometimes so much so that some patients even prefer to have their stoma-reversal itself reversed, and to live with a permanent colonostomy or iliostomy.[11]

Depending on the staging, size and location of the tumour, neoadjuvant radiotherapy often combined with chemotherapy may be used to shrink the tumour prior to surgery and prevent further spread. Adjuvant chemotherapy may also be used post-surgery to prevent further disease spread[12]

References edit

  1. ^ Heald, R. J.; Husband, E. M.; Ryall, R. D. H. (1982). "The mesorectum in rectal cancer surgery—the clue to pelvic recurrence?". British Journal of Surgery. 69 (10): 613–6. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800691019. PMID 6751457. S2CID 6200459.
  2. ^ "UK 'missing out' on life-saving surgery". BBC News. July 6, 2000. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  3. ^ Heald RJ. The ‘Holy Plane’ of rectal surgery. J R Soc Med 1988;81:503–80
  4. ^ Phang, P. T. (2004). "Total mesorectal excision: technical aspects". Canadian Journal of Surgery. 47 (2): 130–137. PMC 3211930. PMID 15132469.
  5. ^ Emile, S. H.; De Lacy, F. B.; Keller, D. S.; Martin-Perez, B.; Alrawi, S.; Lacy, A. M.; Chand, M. (2018). "Evolution of transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 10 (3): 28–39. doi:10.4240/wjgs.v10.i3.28. PMC 5867456. PMID 29588809.
  6. ^ Steele, R. J. (1999). "Anterior resection with total mesorectal excision". Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. 44 (1): 40–5. PMID 10079668.
  7. ^ "About bowel cancer treatment – TME". Pelican Cancer Foundation.
  8. ^ Cassinotti, Elisa; Palazzini, Giorgio; Porta, Massimiliano Della; Grosso, Ilaria; Boni, Luigi (12 July 2017). "Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME): tips and tricks of a new surgical technique". Annals of Laparoscopic and Endoscopic Surgery. 2 (7): 111. doi:10.21037/ales.2017.05.07. hdl:2434/636118.
  9. ^ Ridgway, Paul F.; Darzi, Ara W. (2003). "The role of total mesorectal excision in the management of rectal cancer" (PDF). Cancer Control. 10 (3): 205–11. doi:10.1177/107327480301000303. PMID 12794618. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-05-04. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  10. ^ Chen, Tina Yen-Ting; Wiltink, Lisette M.; Nout, Remi A.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Laurberg, Søren; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.; Van De Velde, Cornelis J.H. (2015). "Bowel Function 14 Years After Preoperative Short-Course Radiotherapy and Total Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer: Report of a Multicenter Randomized Trial". Clinical Colorectal Cancer. 14 (2): 106–14. doi:10.1016/j.clcc.2014.12.007. PMID 25677122.
  11. ^ Bazzell, A.; Madsen, L. T.; Dains, J. (2016). "Clinical Management of Bowel Dysfunction After Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer". Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology. 7 (6): 618–629. PMC 5866128. PMID 29588867.
  12. ^ "Types of surgery". Bowel Cancer UK website.