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Tolstoy (Russian "Толстой") is a noble Russian family name derived from the Russian adjective "то́лстый" ("thick, stout, fat").
The family name is shared by three major Russian writers of the 19th-20th centuries, of whom two also share first names Alexei, and one of these has the same patronymic Nikolaevich (Nicholas's son) with the best known of them - Lev or Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910).
- Tolstoy (family), Nobility with origins in the 15th century
- Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1883–1945) 'Comrade Count', writer of science fiction and historical novels.
- Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy (1817–1875), poet and writer of historical dramas, second cousin of Leo Tolstoy.
- Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy (1770–1857), soldier, later military consultant to Ibrahim-pasha in Egypt
- Alexandra Tolstaya (1884–1970), youngest daughter of Leo Tolstoy and founder of Tolstoy Foundation
- Alexandra Tolstoy (born 1974), born Alexandra Tolstoy-Miloslavsky, British equine adventurer, broadcaster and businesswoman
- Dmitry Tolstoy (1823–1889), Russian statesman and historian
- Fyodor Tolstoy (disambiguation)
- Ilya Tolstoy (1866–1933), writer and son of Leo Tolstoy
- Ilya Andreyevich Tolstoy (1903–1970), U.S. Army Colonel, F. D. Roosevelt's envoy in Tibet, grandson of Leo Tolstoy
- Natalia Tolstaya (1943–2010), writer and translator
- Nikolai Tolstoy (born 1935), English-Russian author and former parliamentary candidate of the UK Independence Party.
- Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy (1769–1844), general and statesman
- Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy (1645–1729), statesman and diplomat
- Sophia Tolstaya (1844–1919), diarist and wife of Leo Tolstoy.
- Svetlana Tolstaya (born 1971), Kazakh race walker
- Tatyana Tolstaya (born 1951), Russian writer and TV host
- Viktoria Tolstoy (born 1974), Swedish jazz singer
- Yegor Tolstoy (1802–1874), Russian lieutenant-general, senator, and governor
- Tatyana Sukhotina-Tolstaya (1864 – 1950), Russian painter and memoirist, oldest daughter of Leo Tolstoy.