The Timočani (also Timochani, or Timochans; Serbian and Bulgarian: Тимочани) were a medieval South Slavic tribe that lived in the territory of present-day eastern Serbia, west of the Timok River, as well as in the regions of Banat, Syrmia and Moesia Superior.
Timočani settled in the Balkans in the 6th century and became later subjects of the Avar Khaganate. In 805 that area was conquered of the Bulgar Khanate under Khan Krum. In 818 during the rule of Omurtag of Bulgaria (814-836) they, together with other border tribes of the First Bulgarian Empire, revolted because of an administrative reform that deprived them of much of their local authority.
They, together with other Slavic tribes, searched protection from Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious in the same year, meeting him at his court at Herstal. Omurtag decided to settle the matter by means of diplomacy in 824-826, though his letters were not replied to by Louis. This prompted Omurtag to undertake a boat campaign on the Drava in 827 and invade the lands of the Timočani at Sirmium, successfully imposing Bulgar rule again and appointing local governors. Many Timochans fled to Transdanubia, later becoming part of the Lower Pannonian Principality.
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