Timeline of Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory transfer

This page is meant to provide clarity on the mechanisms and timeline of the transfer of Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory from the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) back to the Crown and then immediately to the new nation of Canada.

Timeline of Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory transfer
DateJuly 15, 1870 (1870-07-15)
TypeLand transfer by annexation
MotiveCanadian territorial acquisition
Organised byGovernment of Canada, Government of the United Kingdom, Hudson's Bay Company
Canada, prior to receiving Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory
Canada after receiving Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory. Manitoba is also created as a province, simultaneously.
Year Date Event Reference
1670 May 2 King Charles II of England grants HBC a royal charter for "the sole Trade and Commerce of all those Seas, Streights, Bays, Rivers, Lakes, Creeks, and Sounds, in whatsoever Latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the Streights commonly called Hudson's Streights... which are not now actually possessed by any of our Subjects, or by the Subjects of any other Christian Prince or State... and that the said Land be from henceforth... called Rupert's Land". [1]
1857 February 5 The Parliament of the Province of Canada establishes a committee to investigate the activities of HBC. In particular, whether HBC is effective in promoting settlement of the region. The committee later delivers a report expressing displeasure with the current administrative policies of HBC. The committee recommends transferring land to the Province of Canada, but this is not viewed as appropriate because Canada is still only a province. Little progress is made. [2]
1864 January The International Financial Society, an emerging investment company, purchases a controlling interest in the HBC. The society is more interested in leveraging the vast lands for expansion, stating in their prospectus "It has become evident that... the immense resources of the Company's territory... should be developed in accordance with the industrial spirit of the age, and the rapid advancement which colonization has [been] made in the countries adjacent." [3]
1867 July 1 With the Confederation of Canada, Canada becomes a country. The new federal government quickly becomes interested in expanding westward, urged on by American interest in the lands and British desire to maintain a sphere of influence over the region.
1867 December 21 Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck, Governor General of Canada, sends a despatch to Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, then Secretary of State for the Colonies with a joint address from both the Senate and House of Commons requesting the annexation of "Rupert's Land and the Red River settlement" to the Dominion of Canada be submitted to The Crown for consideration. [4]
1868 October 2 George-Étienne Cartier, Minister of Militia and Defence and William McDougall, Minister of Public Works are selected by the Privy Council to negotiate on behalf of Canada. [4]
1868 October 13 Cartier and McDougall expected to arrive in the UK for negotiations. [4]
1868 March 9 Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, the new Secretary of State for the Colonies, issues an ultimatum to both HBC and the Canadian negotiators. Neither side accepts. [5]
1868 July 31 Rupert's Land Act is passed by the parliament of the United Kingdom. The act does not complete the transfer but merely confirms the support of the United Kingdom's parliament for negotiations to occur. [6]
1869 May 8 Cartier and McDougall submit their report to the Canadian Parliament regarding negotiations with HBC and British officials, after their return to Canada. [4]
1869 June 21 Government of Canada resolves to accept loan from the United Kingdom and pay the HBC company upon transferred to the dominion. [7]
1869 November 19 Canadian, HBC, and British negotiators sign the Deed of Surrender. [5][additional citation(s) needed]
1869 December 1 The Canadian government ratifies the agreement. [5][additional citation(s) needed]
1870 May 7 HBC forwards the finalized deal to the Colonial Office. [5][additional citation(s) needed]
1870 May 11 Canada finalizes deposits to HBC. [5][additional citation(s) needed]
1870 June 23 Queen Victoria issues an order-in-council, Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory - Enactment No. 3, to take effect on 15 July 1870. [8]
1870 July 15 Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory are combined under the new name of the North-West Territories. Simultaneously, the province of Manitoba is created by the Manitoba Act. [5][additional citation(s) needed]

References Edit

  1. ^ "Text of HBC's Royal Charter". HBC Heritage. Retrieved Feb 14, 2020.
  2. ^ Report from the Select committee on the Hudson's Bay company: together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence, appendix and index. London. 1857. hdl:2027/coo1.ark:/13960/t9v12m65p.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ The International Financial Society Limited: issue of stock in the Hudson's Bay Company. London, England. 1863.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  4. ^ a b c d "Correspondence relating to Surrender of Rupert's Land by Hudson's Bay Company and Admission into Dominion of Canada". House of Commons Papers. 43.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Deed of Surrender". HBC Heritage. Retrieved Feb 14, 2020.
  6. ^ Rupert's Land Act, 1868
  7. ^ House of Commons Votes and Proceedings, 1st Parliament, 2nd Session : 1-49. Government of Canada. 1869. p. 252.
  8. ^ "Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory - Enactment No. 3". Government of Canada, Department of Justice. Retrieved Feb 14, 2020.