Tianyi bao (Chinese: 天義報; Journal of Natural Justice) was an anarcho-feminist magazine which was published in Tokyo, Japan, for two years between 1907 and 1908. It was started by the Chinese exiles and closed down by the Government of Japan.

Tianyi bao
CategoriesAnarchist publication
Final issue1908
Based inTokyo

History and profileEdit

Tianyi bao was established in Tokyo by Liu Shipei and He Zen in 1907.[1][2] The magazine featured articles written by a group of anarchists which is called the Tokyo anarchists, including Jing Meijiu.[3][4] In contrast to the westernized Chinese anarchists in Paris this group much more firmly criticized imperialism and Western culture[4] and supported feminism.[5] They also adopted the views of Peter Kropotkin concerning the fusion of agriculture and industry in social organization and of mental and manual labor.[5] The articles by He Zhen were mostly about her feminist project, and she argued that their goal was to destroy the old society and practice human equality.[4] She supported not only women's revolution, but also racial, political and economic revolutions in her writings.[4]

The magazine occasionally employed Esperanto, for instance, in the title of a photo of the French anarchist Élisée Reclus, and published the Esperanto anthem by L. L. Zamenhof.[3] Liu Shipei also published an article about Esperanto.[3]

Tianyi bao was banned by the Japanese authorities and ceased publication in 1908 immediately following the publication of a translation of the Communist Manifesto in January 1908.[3][6] It was succeeded by another anarchist publication entitled Hengbao.[2]


  1. ^ Michael Wood (2020). The Story of China: A portrait of a civilisation and its people. London: Simon & Schuster. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-4711-7600-5.
  2. ^ a b Peter Zarrow (1990). Anarchism and Chinese Political Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0231071383.
  3. ^ a b c d Gotelind Müller-Saini; Gregor Benton (2006). "Esperanto and Chinese anarchism 1907–1920 The translation from diaspora to homeland". Language Problems and Language Planning. 30 (1). doi:10.1075/lplp.30.1.05mul. S2CID 144544128.
  4. ^ a b c d Viren Murthy (2010). "Review of Different Worlds of Discourse: Transformations of Gender and Genre in Late Qing and Early Republican China". International Journal of Asian Studies. 7 (1). doi:10.1017/S1479591409990374. S2CID 144677280. ProQuest 208895474.
  5. ^ a b Arif Dirlik (2012). "Anarchism in early twentieth century China: A contemporary perspective". Journal of Modern Chinese History. 6 (2): 134. doi:10.1080/17535654.2012.708183. S2CID 144753702.
  6. ^ Yihua Jiang (2012). "A brief history of Chinese socialist thought in the past century". Journal of Modern Chinese History. 6 (2): 147–163. doi:10.1080/17535654.2012.718604. S2CID 144652235.