A thromde (Dzongkha: ཁྲོམ་སྡེ་; Wylie: khrom-sde) is a second-level administrative division in Bhutan. The legal administrative status of thromdes was most recently codified under the Local Government Act of 2009, and the role of thromdes in elections in Bhutan was defined in the Election Act of 2008

GovernanceEdit

Thromde administration is a product of the Bhutanese program of decentralization and devolution of power and authority.[1]: Preamble  Thromdes are administered independently by a Thromde Tshogde if sufficiently developed and populated (Class A Thromdes); or directly by Dzongkhag Administration or the Gewog Administration as decided by the Government (Class B Thromdes and Yenlag Thromdes). From time to time, Parliament decides the boundaries of Thromde in consultation with the National Land Commission Secretariat and local authorities.[1]: §§ 11–18, 85 

Each Thromde Tshogde is composed of seven to ten elected members and headed by a Thrompon. Thromde Tshogdes are empowered to regulate advertising, enforce public health and safety rules, and to levy taxes on land, property, property transfer (sales tax) and, "betterment." The municipal governments are also authorized to levy special taxes on vacant and underdeveloped land to encourage development, and to raise and spend money in to promote local economic development.[1]: §§ 61–65 

The administrations overseeing Class B Thromdes and Yenlag Thromdes are tasked with encouraging and overseeing their progressive development into Class A Thromdes – locally governed municipalities.[1]: § 17 

Although Class A and Class B Thromdes were established ahead of local elections in 2011, Yenlag Thromdes were to be declared only after the second parliamentary elections in 2013. This would be followed by another delimitation of the 16 Dzongkhag Thromdes (Class B) and a review of chiwog numbers and boundaries affected by the declaration of the Yenlag Thromdes.[2] In 2015 a list was approved by parliament of updated Dzongkhag and Yenlag Thromdes boundaries.[3] As of 2017 there are only four self-governing Thromde (Dzongkhag Thromde class A) : Thimphu,[4] Phuentsholing,[5] Gelephu[6] and Samdrup Jongkhar.[7][8]

HistoryEdit

Under the Geog Yargay Tshochung of 2002, gewog administration included non-votingTshogpa, representatives of villages or village clusters.[9] Through the enactment of the Act of 2009, gewogs were divided administratively into representatives by chiwogs, or village groups.[10]

The Local Government Act of 2007 was the first piece of Bhutanese legislation to provide distinctions among thromdes, dividing them into two classes: Dzongkhag Thromdes, which lacked the developmental capacity to form administrations in their own right; and Gyelong Thromdes, which were independent, non-legislating municipalities administered by a Gyelyong Thromde Tshogdu (Gyelyong administration). Each Gyelong administration was headed by an Executive Secretary. The administrative role of Gyelong Thromde Tshogdus were largely analogous to later roles for more developed municipalities.[10][11][9]

The Constitution of 2008 confirmed the status of thromdes, providing for Thromde Tshogdes as the most basic level of some local government administration; for other thromdes, administration was provided directly through Dzongkhag Thromde representation by one elected member from Dzongkhag Thromdes, and a second from Dzongkhag Yenlag Thromdes. The Constitution provided the basic legal framework for thromde administrations in the terms that continue today.[12]

List of ThromdesEdit

The following is a list of thromdes by dzongkhag, gewog, and rank:[13][14]

Dzongkhag Gewog Thromde.[15][16] Rank[17][18]
Bumthang[19]
Chhoekhor
ཆོས་འཁོར་
Jakar or Bumthang[20] Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Chhukha[21]
Bjachho
བྱག་ཕྱོགས་
Tsimasham Yenlag Thromde
Phuentsholing
ཕུན་ཚོགས་གླིང་
Phuentsholing Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Sampheling
བསམ་འཕེལ་གླིང་
Dagana[22]
Goshi
སྒོ་བཞི་
Daga or Dagana Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Lhamoy Zingkha
སྒོ་བཞི་
Lhamoyzhingkha Yenlag Thromde
Gasa[23]
Khatoe
ཁ་སྟོད་
Gasa Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Khatoe
ཁ་སྟོད་
Damji Yenlag Thromde
Haa[24]
Katsho
སྐར་ཚོགས་
Ha or Haa Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Uesu
དབུས་སུ་
Sama
ས་དམར་་
Jyenkana Yenlag Thromde
Lhuentse[25]
Gangzur
སྒང་ཟུར་
Lhuentse Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Tsenkhar
སྒང་ཟུར་
Autsho Yenlag Thromde
Mongar[26]
Mongar
མོང་སྒར་
Mongar Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Ngatshang
སྔ་ཚང་
Yadi Yenlag Thromde
Paro[27]
Wangchang
ཝང་ལྕང་
Paro Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Pema Gatshel[28]
Shumar
ཤུ་མར་
Pemagatshel Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Punakha[29]
Guma
གུ་མ་
Punakha Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Guma
གུ་མ་
Lobeysa Yenlag Thromde
Samdrup Jongkhar[30]
Dewathang
དབེ་བ་ཐང་
Samdrup Jongkhar Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Dewathang or Deothang (merged with Samdrup Jongkhar Thromde)[31] Yenlag Thromde
Phuentshothang
ཕུན་ཚོགས་ཐང
Samdrupcholing Yenlag Thromde
Samtse[32]
Samtse
བསམ་རྩེ་
Samtse Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Phuentshogpelri
ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབལ་རི་་
Gomtu Yenlag Thromde
Sarpang[33]
Gelephu
དགེ་ལེགས་ཕུ་
Gelephu Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Gakiling, Shompangkha
Sarpang[34] Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Thimphu[35]
Chang
ལྕང་
Thimphu Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Kawang
ཀ་ཝང་
Mewang
སྨད་ཝང
Khasadrapchu Yenlag Thromde
Trashigang[36]
Samkhar
བསམ་མཁར་
Trashigang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Shongpu
་ཤོང་ཕུག
Rangjung Yenlag Thromde
Trashi Yangtse[37]
Bumdeling
བུམ་སྡེ་གླིང་
Trashiyangtse Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Khamdang
བུམ་སྡེ་གླིང་
Duksum[38] Yenlag Thromde
Trongsa[39]
Nubi
ནུ་སྦིས་
Trongsa Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Dragteng
་བྲག་སྟེང
Kuengarabten Yenlag Thromde
Tsirang[40]
Kikhorthang
དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ཐང་
Damphu[38] Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Mendrelgang
མནྜལ་སྒང
Mendrelgang Yenlag Thromde
Wangdue Phodrang[41]
Thedtsho
ཐེད་ཚོ་
Wangdue Phodrang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Wangdue Phodrang[42]
Dangchhu
ཐེད་ཚོ་
Nobding[38] Yenlag Thromde
Zhemgang[43]
Trong
ཀྲོང་
Zhemgang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Ngangla
ངང་ལ་
Panbang Yenlag Thromde

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Local Government Act of Bhutan 2009" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 11 September 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  2. ^ Pem, Tandin (8 April 2011). "LG Election Period Begins". Bhutan Observer online. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  3. ^ see the recent list of "Approved Dzongkhag and Yenlag Thromde Boundaries by 5th Session of the 2nd Parliament in the joint sitting on 10th June 2015" http://www.mowhs.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/dzongkhag-yenlag-thromdey.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.thimphucity.bt/
  5. ^ http://www.pcc.bt/
  6. ^ http://www.gcc.bt/
  7. ^ http://www.sjthromde.gov.bt/
  8. ^ Local Government Directory at http://gov.bt/
  9. ^ a b "Geog Yargay Tshogchhung Chathrim 2002" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 13 June 2002. Retrieved 20 January 2011.[dead link]
  10. ^ a b "Local Government Act of Bhutan 2007" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 31 July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  11. ^ "Dzongkhag Yargay Tshogdu Chathrim 2002" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.[dead link]
  12. ^ "Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan (English)" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 18 July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  13. ^ this list is mainly based on Election Commission information; for duly approved thromde boundaries see the info on the website of the Ministry of Works and Human Settlements http://www.mowhs.gov.bt/publications/approved-thromde-and-boundaries/ Archived 2017-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ for a 2017 list of thromdes see publication by the Ministry of Finance on (Land) Compensation rates http://www.mof.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/CR-2017.pdf
  15. ^ "Thromde Election Results 2011". Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  16. ^ where available the Thromde name as per Ministry of Works and Human Settlements is given as alternative, see http://www.mowhs.gov.bt/publications/approved-thromde-and-boundaries/ Archived 2017-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Pelden, Sonam (7 May 2010). "Cabinet Approves Thromdes". Bhutan Observer online. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  18. ^ Dorji, Kezang (26 November 2010). "LG Elections Finalized". Bhutan Observer online. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  19. ^ "Chiwogs in Bumthang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  20. ^ "Why should Bumthang Thromde be upgraded to Throm a category?". 9 April 2012.
  21. ^ "Chiwogs in Chukha" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Chiwogs in Dagana" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  23. ^ "Chiwogs in Gasa" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  24. ^ "Chiwogs in Haa" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  25. ^ "Chiwogs in Lhuentse" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  26. ^ "Chiwogs in Monggar" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  27. ^ "Chiwogs in Paro" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  28. ^ "Chiwogs in Pema Gatshel" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  29. ^ "Chiwogs in Punakha" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  30. ^ "Chiwogs in Samdrup Jongkhar" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  31. ^ approved thromdes & boundaries 2010, part 1 on the website of the Ministry of Works and Human Settlements http://www.mowhs.gov.bt/publications/approved-thromde-and-boundaries/ Archived 2017-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Chiwogs in Samtse" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  33. ^ "Chiwogs in Sarpang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  34. ^ see approved thromdes & boundaries 2010, part 3, and 2015 revisions on the website of the Ministry of Works and Human Settlements http://www.mowhs.gov.bt/publications/approved-thromde-and-boundaries/ Archived 2017-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Chiwogs in Thimphu" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  36. ^ "Chiwogs in Trashigang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  37. ^ "Chiwogs in Trashiyangtse" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  38. ^ a b c new thromdes & boundaries 2015 on the website of the Ministry of Works and Human Settlements http://www.mowhs.gov.bt/publications/approved-thromde-and-boundaries/ Archived 2017-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "Chiwogs in Trongsa" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  40. ^ "Chiwogs in Tsirang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  41. ^ "Chiwogs in Wangdue Phodrang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  42. ^ "Chiwogs in Wangdue Phodrang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  43. ^ "Chiwogs in Zhemgang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.