Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry. He was a founding member of the Royal Society.
Willis in 1667
|Born||27 January 1621|
Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire
|Died||11 November 1675 (aged 54)|
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
|Known for||Circle of Willis|
Willis was born on his parents' farm in Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, where his father held the stewardship of the Manor. He was a kinsman of the Willys baronets of Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire. He graduated M.A. from Christ Church, Oxford in 1642. In the Civil War years he was a royalist, dispossessed of the family farm at North Hinksey by Parliamentary forces. In the 1640s Willis was one of the royal physicians to Charles I of England. Less grandly, once qualified B. Med. in 1646, he began as an active physician by regularly attending the market at Abingdon.
He maintained an Anglican position; an Anglican congregation met at his lodgings in the 1650s, including John Fell, John Dolben, and Richard Allestree. Fell's father Samuel Fell had been expelled as Dean of Christ Church, in 1647; Willis married Samuel Fell's daughter Mary, and brother-in-law John Fell would later be his biographer. He employed Robert Hooke as an assistant, in the period 1656-8; this probably was another Fell family connection, since Samuel Fell knew Hooke's father in Freshwater, Isle of Wight.
One of several Oxford cliques of those interested in science grew up around Willis and Christ Church. Besides Hooke, others in the group were Nathaniel Hodges, John Locke, Richard Lower, Henry Stubbe and John Ward. (Locke went on to study with Thomas Sydenham, who would become Willis's leading rival, and who both politically and medically held some incompatible views.) In the broader Oxford scene, he was a colleague in the "Oxford club" of experimentalists with Ralph Bathurst, Robert Boyle, William Petty, John Wilkins and Christopher Wren. Willis was on close terms with Wren's sister Susan Holder, skilled in the healing of wounds.
Willis lived on Merton Street, Oxford, from 1657 to 1667. In 1656 and 1659 he published two significant medical works, De Fermentatione and De Febribus. These were followed by the 1664 volume on the brain, which was a record of collaborative experimental work. From 1660 until his death, he was Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy at Oxford. At the time of the formation of the Royal Society of London, he was on the 1660 list of priority candidates, and became a Fellow in 1661. Henry Stubbe became a polemical opponent of the Society, and used his knowledge of Willis's earlier work before 1660 to belittle some of the claims made by its proponents.
Willis later worked as a physician in Westminster, London, this coming about after he treated Gilbert Sheldon in 1666. He had a successful medical practice, in which he applied both his understanding of anatomy and known remedies, attempting to integrate the two; he mixed both iatrochemical and mechanical views. According to Noga Arikha
|“||Willis combined the physician's expert anatomical sophistication with the fluent use of an interpretive apparatus that see-sawed between novelty and tradition, Galenism and Gassendist atomism, iatrochemistry and mechanism.||”|
Willis is mentioned in John Aubrey's Brief Lives; their families became linked generations later through the marriage of Aubrey's distant cousin Sir John Aubrey, 6th Baronet of Llantrithyd to Martha Catherine Carter, the grand-niece of Sir William Willys, 6th Baronet of Fen Ditton.
Willis was a pioneer in research into the anatomy of the brain, nervous system and muscles. His most notable discovery was the "Circle of Willis", a circle of arteries on the base of the brain.
Willis's anatomy of the brain and nerves, as described in his Cerebri anatome of 1664, is minute and elaborate. This work coined the term neurology, and was not the result of his own personal and unaided exertions; he acknowledged his debt to Sir Christopher Wren, who provided drawings, Thomas Millington, and his fellow anatomist Richard Lower. It abounds in new information, and presents an enormous contrast with the vaguer efforts of his predecessors.
In 1667 Willis published Pathologicae cerebri, et nervosi generis specimen, an important work on the pathology and neurophysiology of the brain. In it he developed a new theory of the cause of epilepsy and other convulsive diseases, and contributed to the development of psychiatry. In 1672 he published the earliest English work on medical psychology, Two Discourses concerning the Soul of Brutes, which is that of the Vital and Sensitive of Man. Willis could be seen as an early pioneer of the mind-brain supervenience claim prominent in present day neuropsychiatry and philosophy of mind. Unfortunately, his enlightenment did not improve his treatment of patients, advocating in some cases to hit the patient over the head with sticks. 
Willis was the first to number the cranial nerves in the order in which they are now usually enumerated by anatomists. He noted the parallel lines of the mesolobe (corpus callosum), afterwards minutely described by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr. He seems to have recognised the communication of the convoluted surface of the brain and that between the lateral cavities beneath the fornix. He described the corpora striata and optic thalami; the four orbicular eminences, with the bridge, which he first named annular protuberance; and the white mammillary eminences, behind the infundibulum. In the cerebellum he remarks the arborescent arrangement of the white and grey matter and gives a good account of the internal carotids and the communications which they make with the branches of the basilar artery.
Willis replaced Nemesius's doctrine. He deduced that the ventricles contained cerebrospinal fluid which collected waste products from effluents. Willis recognized the cortex as the substrate of cognition and claimed that the gyrencephalia was related to a progressive increase in the complexity of cognition. In his functional scheme, the origin of voluntary movements was placed at the cerebral cortex while involuntary movements came from the cerebellum. .
He coined the term mellitus in diabetes mellitus. An old name for the condition is "Willis's disease". He observed what had been known for many centuries elsewhere, that the urine is sweet in patients (glycosuria). His observations on diabetes formed a chapter of Pharmaceutice rationalis (1674). Further research came from Johann Conrad Brunner, who had met Willis in London.
Willis's work gained currency in France through the writings of Daniel Duncan. The philosopher Richard Cumberland quickly applied the findings on brain anatomy to argue a case against Thomas Hobbes's view of the primacy of the passions. Willis's books, including Cerebri anatome and selected works in 5 volumes (1664) are listed as once in the library of Sir Thomas Browne. His son Edward Browne (physician), who was President of the Royal College of Physicians from 1704-1707 also owned books by Willis. 
By his wife, Mary Fell, Willis had five daughters and four sons, of whom four children survived early childhood. After Mary's death in 1670, he married the widow Elizabeth Calley, daughter of Matthew Nicholas, in 1672: there were no children of this marriage.
Fenny Stratford churchEdit
Browne Willis, the antiquary, was son of Thomas Willis (1658–1699), the eldest son of Thomas and Mary. Between 1724 and 1730, Browne Willis rebuilt St. Martin's Church on the site of the old Chantry Chapel of St. Margaret and St. Catherine at Fenny Stratford. He erected the church as a memorial to his grandfather Willis who lived in St. Martin's Lane in the parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London and who died on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1675.
- 1663 Diatribae duae medico-philosophicae – quarum prior agit de fermentatione on Google Books
- 1664 Cerebri anatome: cui accessit nervorum descriptio et usus
- 1667 Pathologiae Cerebri et Nervosi Generis Specimen
- 1672 De Anima Brutorum
- 1675 Pharmaceutice rationalis. Sive Diatriba de medicamentorum operationibus in humano corpore on Google Books
- 1675 A plain and easie method for preserving (by God's blessing) those that are well from the infection of the plague, or any contagious distemper, in city, camp, fleet, &c., and for curing such as are infected with it
- 1677 Pharmaceutice rationalis sive diatriba de medicamentorum operationibus in humano corpore Digital version of Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf
- 1681 Clarissimi Viri Thomae Willis, Medicinae Doctoris, Naturalis Philosophiae Professoris Oxoniensis ... Opera Omnia : Cum Elenchis Rerum Et Indicibus necessariis, ut & multis Figuris aeneis Digital version of Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf
- Moore, Norman (1900). Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 62. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 25–26. . In
- Martenson, Robert L. (October 2007) . "Willis, Thomas (1621–1675)]". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29587.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Willis, Thomas. The Galileo Project. Galileo.rice.edu. Retrieved on 17 July 2012.
- Symonds, Charles (1960). "Thomas Willis, F.R.S. (1621–1675)". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 15: 91–97. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1960.0008. JSTOR 531028.
- Lisa Jardine, On a Grander Scale, HarperCollins, 2004, ISBN 006095910X, p. 54.
- Nicholas Tyacke, The History of the University of Oxford: Volume IV: Seventeenth-Century Oxford (1984), p. 804.
- Allan Chapman, England's Leonardo: Robert Hooke and the Seventeenth-century Scientific Revolution, Institute of Physics, 2005, ISBN 0750309873, p. 20.
- Restoration man. Oxford Today, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2003).
- Lisa Jardine, The Curious Life of Robert Hooke, HarperCollins, 2003, p. 66.
- Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, Walter Rüegg, A History of the University in Europe (1996), p. 547.
- Wayne Glausser, Locke and Blake: A Conversation Across the Eighteenth Century, University Press of Florida, 1998, ISBN 0813015707, p. 49.
- Andrew Pyle (editor), The Dictionary of Seventeenth Century British Philosophers (2000), Thoemmes Press (two volumes), article Willis, Thomas, p. 896. ISBN 1855067048.
- BIOGRAPHIES: Susan Holder (1627-1688). She-philosopher.com (27 September 2009). Retrieved on 17 July 2012.
- Molnár, Zoltán (2004). "Timeline: Thomas Willis (1621–1675), the founder of clinical neuroscience". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 5 (4): 329–35. doi:10.1038/nrn1369. PMID 15034557.
- Margery Purvey, The Royal Society: Concept and Creation, MIT Press, 1967, pp. 138–9.
- Jon Parkin, Science, Religion and Politics in Restoration England (1999), p. 134 ISBN 0861932412.
- Andrew Wear, Knowledge and Practice in English Medicine, 1550–1680, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0521558271, p. 446.
- Allen G. Debus, Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry: Papers from Ambix, Jeremy Mills Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0954648412, p. 364.
- Arikha, Noga (2006). "Form and Function in the Early Enlightenment". Perspectives on Science. 14 (2): 13. doi:10.1162/posc.2006.14.2.153.
- Carol Wayne White, The Legacy of Anne Conway (1631–1679): Reverberations from a Mystical Naturalism, SUNY Press, 2008, ISBN 0791474658, p. 6.
- Thomas Willis. Whonamedit. Retrieved on 17 July 2012.
- Willis T. An Essay of the Pathology of the Brain and Nervous Stock: In Which Convulsive Diseases Are Treated Of. Pordage S, trans. London: Dring, Leigh and Harper; 1684.
- Arráez-Aybar, Luis-A. "Thomas Willis, a pioneer in translational research in anatomy (on the 350th anniversary of Cerebri anatome)". Journal of Anatomy. 226 (3): 289-300. doi:10.1111/joa.12273. PMC 4337668.
- Ocular Syndromes and Systemic Diseases: Diabetes Mellitus Archived 4 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Medrounds.org (22 March 2007). Retrieved on 17 July 2012.
- Dallas, John (2011). "Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Diabetes, Doctors and Dogs: An exhibition on Diabetes and Endocrinology by the College Library for the 43rd St. Andrew's Day Festival Symposium". Archived from the original on 17 August 2011.
- Roberts, Jacob (2015). "Sickening sweet". Distillations. 1 (4): 12–15. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- Elizabeth Lane Furdell, Textual Healing: Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Medicine, BRILL, 2005, ISBN 9004146636, p. 248.
- A facsimile of the 1711 Sales Auction Catalogue of the libraries of Sir Thomas Browne and his son Edward Browne edited with an Introduction by J.S.Finch published by E.J.Brill Leiden 1986
- "Thomas WIllis". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Carl Zimmer, Soul Made Flesh, 2004.
- Eduardo Punset, The Soul is in the brain, 2006.
- Kenneth Dewhurst, Thomas Willis as a Physician, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964.
- Kenneth Dewhurst, Willis's Oxford Casebook, Oxford: Sandford Publications, 1981. ISBN 0-9501528-5-4.
- H. Isler, Thomas Willis. Ein Wegbereiter der modernen Medizin, 1621–1675, Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1965.
- J.T. Hughes, Thomas Willis (1621–1675): His Life and Work, London: Royal Society of Medicine, 1991.
- M. Simonazzi, Thomas Willis e il sistema nervoso, in Id., La malattia inglese. La melanconia nella tradizione filosofica e medica dell'Inghilterra moderna, Bologna: Il Mulino, 2004, pp. 185–252.
- Rengachary, Setti S; Xavier Andrew; Manjila Sunil; Smerdon Usha; Parker Brandon; Hadwan Suzan; Guthikonda Murali (2008). "The legendary contributions of Thomas Willis (1621–1675): the arterial circle and beyond". J. Neurosurg. 109 (4): 765–75. doi:10.3171/JNS/2008/109/10/0765. PMID 18826368.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Willis, Thomas.|
- The Willis Fleming Historical Trust
- Thomas Willis from The Galileo Project
- Munk, William (1878). The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Vol. I (2nd ed.). London. pp. 338–342.
- Andrew Williams on "Thomas Willis’ Practice of Paediatric Neurology and Neurodisability." Pulse Project Podcast (23 July 2009, Oxford)