Thomas Gargrave

Sir Thomas Gargrave (1495–1579) was a Yorkshire Knight who served as High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1565 and 1569. His principal residence was at Nostell Priory, one of many grants of land that Gargrave secured during his lifetime.[1] He was Speaker of the House of Commons and vice president of the Council of the North.

Sir Thomas Gargrave, oil on panel, unknown artist, 1570. Gift to National Portrait Gallery, London, by Gery Milner-Gibson-Cullum

Early lifeEdit

Gargrave was the son of Thomas Gargrave of Wakefield, West Yorkshire, and Elizabeth, daughter of William Levett of Hooton Levitt and Normanton, West Yorkshire.[2][3] Through his mother's Levett family, Gargrave was related to such Yorkshire clans as the Wickersleys and their descendants, the Swyfts (Swifts), the Reresbys, the Barnbys, the Wentworths, the Bosviles, the Mirfins and others.

He received a legal education at either Gray's Inn or the Middle Temple, and by 1521 began his career as Steward of the Household of Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy de Darcy (often called Lord Darcy of the North), where Gargrave's ambition and drive were immediately apparent.

Political careerEdit

Nostell Priory

Gargrave served in Scotland in 1547 as treasurer to the English army during the war known as the Rough Wooing under Earl of Warwick. The Earl of Shrewsbury subsequently helped him gain a place on the Council of the North which required that he be knighted.[4]

With the help of Darcy's influence, Gargrave rose quickly, after being knighted in 1549 and becoming Knight of the Shire for Yorkshire in 1553, 1554 and 1555 and again in 1563, 1571 and 1572, he was made Deputy Constable for Pontefract Castle, Steward of York Minster, Receiver of the Exchequer for Yorkshire, Master in Chancery, and Recorder for Kingston upon Hull.[5] Gargrave's rise was meteoric, from humble steward to Knight of the Realm and one of the most powerful men in England, serving frequently on Yorkshire business and at Court.[6]

Gargrave was elected speaker in Queen Elizabeth's first parliament in 1559 and widely known for his address to Parliament of 25 January 1559 in which he urged Queen Elizabeth I to take a husband and marry.[7]

He was appointed High Sheriff of Yorkshire for 1565 and 1569. In 1567 he acquired Nostell Priory from James Blunt, Lord Mountjoy, for £3560.

In August 1568, Gargrave was named supervisor of the estate of William Swyfte of Rotherham, brother of Robert Swyfte, Esq., of Broom Hall, Sheffield.[8]

During the Northern Rebellion from November to December 1569 he was keeper of Pontefract Castle and guarded bridges over the River Aire with 100 soldiers.[9]

Private lifeEdit

Sir Thomas Gargrave married Anne, daughter of William Cotton and Margaret (Culpeper) [10] of Oxon Hoath, Kent, by whom he had his only child, Sir Cotton Gargrave, also High Sheriff of Yorkshire.[11][12] He married secondly Jane, widow of Sir John Wentworth of North Elmsall, West Yorkshire.[13]


In Old Halls, Manors and Families of Derbyshire, author Joseph Tilley sums up the Gargrave legacy as follows: "The Gargraves were a knightly house, who came in for extensive grants of Abbey lands in Yorkshire, but who, within a century afterwards, sank into obscurity. The grandfather of the purchaser of One Ash was Speaker of Queen Elizabeth's first Parliament and President of the Council of the North. He was a favourite of Her Majesty and her minister Burghley; he had a grant from Bess, of the Old Park, Wakefield, but he adopted the glorious old Priory of Nostell for a residence. This was the gentleman who conducted poor Mary of Scots from Bolton to Tutbury."[14]

The story of the Gargraves became an oft-cited tale of the rise – and fall – of ambition. Of the Gargraves, it is said, the poet Byron was moved to write: "'Twere long to tell, and sad to trace, Each step from splendour to disgrace."

The bulk of the Gargrave properties passed to Thomas Gargrave, eldest son of Sir Cotton Gargrave, who left them to his only daughter, who broke with the family's Royalist sympathies by marrying Dr. Richard Berry, physician to Oliver Cromwell. "Berry," according to one early history, "contrived to make himself master of their fortune, and the whole family sunk into obscurity."[15]

No less an authority than Sir Bernard Burke, in his Vicissitudes of Families, was moved by the Gargraves' precipitous fall. "The story of the Gargraves is a melancholy chapter in real life," wrote Burke in the nineteenth century. "For full two centuries or more, scarcely a family in Yorkshire enjoyed a higher position." Subsequently, Sir Thomas Gargrave's oldest son was hanged at York for murder;[16] his half-brother Sir Richard Gargrave of Nostell Priory, once High Sheriff of Yorkshire, later wasted his estate, and was reduced to gambling for a cup of ale, plunging his family into penury. Sir Richard was eventually found dead in a London flophouse.[17] "Not many years since," Burke wrote, "a Mr. Gargrave, believed to be one of them, filled the mean employment of parish clerk at Kippax."[18]

Sir Thomas Gargrave is interred in the south choir of St Michael and Our Lady Church, within the grounds of Nostell Priory. A monument on his tomb states: "Here lyeth Sir Thomas Gargrave, knight, who dyed the 28 of March, 1579, who served sundry times in the wars and as counsellor at Yorke xxxv yeare. He maryed Anne Cotton of Kent and Jane Appleton, widow of Sir John Wentworth of Elmesall. He had yssue only by Anne Cotton, tow sonnes, Cotton and John, which John dyed att his byrth." On Gargrave's tomb are incised the family's coat-of-arms: "On the plate, lozengy ar. and sa. on a bend sa. 3 crescents of the first."[11]

Church of St Michael and Our Lady, Wragby, Wakefield; Sir Thomas Gargrave is buried within the choir


  1. ^ Burke, B. (1848). The Historic Lands of England. Vol. 1. E. Churton. p. 8. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  2. ^ British history; Lodge, E. (1838). Illustrations of British history, biography and manners in the reigns of Henry viii ... [to] James i, in papers from the MSS. of the families of Howard, Talbot and Cecil; containing a great part of the correspondence of Elizabeth and her ministers with the sixth earl of Shrewsbury [ed.] with notes by E. Lodge. Chidley. p. 158. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  3. ^ History of the Parish of Ecclesfield: In the County of York, Jonathan Eastwood, Bell and Daldy, London, 1862
  4. ^ Edmund Lodge, Ilustrations of British History, vol. 1 (London, 1791), pp. 129-30.
  5. ^ Richardson, D.; Everingham, K.G. (2005). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Coloncial And Medieval Families. Genealogical Publishing Company. p. 364. ISBN 9780806317595. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  6. ^ "Institute of Historical Research, Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, James Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (editors), 1905, Pages 278-329, British History Online". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Gargrave, Thomas" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  8. ^ "Rotherhamweb:Wills". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  9. ^ Arthur Clifford, State Papers of Ralph Sadler, vol. 2 (Edinburgh, 1809), p. 445
  10. ^ Margaret Culpeper was the daughter of Sir John Culpeper who lived at Oxon Hoath, built by the Culpepers as a Royal Park for the Kingdom's oxen and deer.
  11. ^ a b Yorkshire Archaeological Society (1904). Record Series (Yorkshire Archaeological Society). Yorkshire Archaeological Society. p. 31. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  12. ^ Flower, W.; Norcliffe, C.B.; College of Arms (Great Britain) (1881). The Visitations of Yorkshire in the Years 1563 and 1564: Made by William Flower, Esquire, Norroy King of Arms. Harleian Society. p. 133. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  13. ^ Wentworth, J. (1878). The Wentworth Genealogy: English and American. Vol. 1. Little, Brown & Company. pp. 1–511. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  14. ^ Old Halls, Manors and Families of Derbyshire, Joseph Tilley, GENUKI Archived 2 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Lodge, E. (1838). Illustrations of British history, biography, and manners, in the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth, & James I: exhibited in a series of original papers, selected from the mss. of the noble families of Howard, Talbot, and Cecil; containing ... a great part of the correspondence of Elizabeth and her ministers, with George, Sixth Earl of Shrewsbury, during the fifteen years in which Mary, Queen of Scots, remained in his custody. Vol. 1. J. Chidley. p. 159. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Gargrave, Thomas (GRGV573T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  17. ^ Burke, B. (1848). The Historic Lands of England. Vol. 1. E. Churton. p. 9. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  18. ^ Burke, B. Vicissitudes of Families, and Other Essays. p. 142. ISBN 9781402189302. Retrieved 7 January 2017.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by Speaker of the House of Commons
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Custos Rotulorum of the West Riding of Yorkshire
bef. 1558–1579
Succeeded by