Open main menu

Third Chinese domination of Vietnam

The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Early Lý dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền. This period saw two Chinese imperial dynasties rule over an area of northern Vietnam roughly corresponding to the modern Hanoi region. From 602–618, this area was under the late Sui Dynasty, under three districts in the Red River Delta. From 618 to 905, the Tang Dynasty became the new Chinese rulers of Vietnam.This began when the king of Early Lý dynasty (Lý Nam Đế II) surrendered to Emperor Wen of Sui in Sui–Former Lý War until Khúc clan seized the capital Đại La and install the autonomous state in Vietnam in 905. At that moment, the Emperor Ai of Tang lost the power to Zhu Wen and stayed as the figurehead.

Third Chinese domination of Vietnam

Tĩnh Hải quân (靜海軍)
602–905 or 938
Vietnam under Southern Han from 930 to 931 (Pink)
Vietnam under Southern Han from 930 to 931 (Pink)
StatusDistrict of Sui dynasty-Tang dynasty-Southern Han
Autonomous province under Khúc clan (905)
CapitalĐại La
Common languagesOld Chinese
Religion
Buddhism
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 602–604
Emperor Wen of Sui (First)
• 618–626
Emperor Gaozu of Tang
• 917–938
Liu Yan (Last)
Jiedushi 
• 905
Dugu Sun
• 905–907
Khúc Thừa Dụ (Autonomous period)
• 907–917
Khúc Hạo
• 917–923
Khúc Thừa Mỹ
• 923–937
Dương Đình Nghệ
• 937–938
Kiều Công Tiễn (Last)
History 
602
• Sui dynasty annexed kingdom of Vạn Xuân
602
• Vietnam under Tang dynasty
618
• The Tang dynasty fell into crisis
884
• Establishment Jiedushi
905
• Khúc clan gained the autonomous in Vietnam
905
905 or 938
CurrencyCash coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Early Lý dynasty
Ngô dynasty
Today part of Vietnam
 China

Contents

NamesEdit

During this time, Vietnam was known as:

Vietnam under Chinese dynasties's ruleEdit

In 602 general Liu Fang of the Sui dynasty led 2,7 million soldiers to invade Vietnamese kingdom of Vạn Xuân. The King of Vạn Xuân Lý Phật Tử had to surrender to Liu Fang and was captured to China. Sui dynasty annexed Vạn Xuân as a province and renamed it Giao Châu (交州), "Giao province".

Liu Fang was nominated as the viceroy of Giao Châu . He died after conquering the Kingdom of Champa and Qiū He ( 丘和) replaced him to rule the land. However, in 618, Emperor Gaozu overthrew the Sui dynasty and established the Tang dynasty, and Qiū He (丘和) submitted to the new Emperor, incorporating Vietnam into the Tang dynasty.

List of governorsEdit

Viceroy of JiaozhouEdit

  • Liu Fang
  • Qiu He (-619) under Sui (619-626) under Tang
  • Li Daliang
  • Li Shou
  • Li Daoxing
  • Li Dao’an
  • Li Jian

Duhu of AnnamEdit

  • Liu Yanyou 681-687
  • Guo Chuke
  • Abe no Nakamaro 761-767 (Duhu of Zhennan)
  • Wu Chongfu 777-782
  • Li Mengqiu 782
  • Zhang Ying 788
  • Pang Fu 789
  • Gao Zhengping 790-791
  • Zhao Chang 791-802
  • Pei 802-803
  • Zhao Chang 804-806
  • Ma Zong 806-810
  • Zhang Mian 813
  • Pei Xingli 813-817
  • Li Xianggu 817-819 - killed by Yang Qing
  • Yang Qing 819-820 - rebelled and killed by Gui Zhongwu
  • Gui Zhongwu 819-820
  • Pei Xingli 820
  • Gui Zhongwu 820-822
  • Wang Chengbian 822
  • Li Yuanxi 822-826
  • Han Yue 827-828
  • Zheng Chuo 831
  • Liu Min 833
  • Han Wei 834
  • Tian Zao 835
  • Ma Zhi 836-840
  • Wu Hun 843
  • Pei Yuanyu 846-847
  • Tian Zaiyou 849-850
  • Cui Geng 852
  • Li Zhuo 853-855
  • Song Ya 857
  • Li Hongfu 857-858
  • Wang Shi 858-860 (military Jinglueshi)
  • Li Hu 860-861
  • Wang Kuan 861-862
  • Cai Xi 862-863 (military Jinglueshi)
  • Song Rong 863 (de jure Jinglueshi, Annam invaded by Nanzhao)
  • Zhang Yin 864 (de jure Jinglueshi, Annam invaded by Nanzhao)

Jiedushi of JinghaiEdit

  • Gao Pian 864-866
  • Wang Yanquan 866
  • Gao Xun 868-873
  • Ceng Gun 880
  • Gao Maoqing 882
  • Gao Zhao 884
  • An Youquan 897-900
  • Sun Dezhao 901
  • Zhu Quanyu 905
  • Dugu Sun 905

RevoltsEdit

The Tang Dynasty quelled three revolts in northern Vietnam between 722 and 728, using an army of natives pressed into service under the leadership of Chinese generals.[1] The Chinese generals were brutal in suppressing the insurrection: one ordered the decapitated bodies of 80,000 scalped and flayed rebels stacked into a pyramid.[1] Although Chinese governors were sent to rule over Annam, a series of local emperors were unofficial rulers under Chinese control:

Restored autonomyEdit

Nanzhao invaded the area of Jiaozhi modern day Vietnam multiple times in the 9th century until the Tang sent Gao Pian to defeat Nanzhao and restoring Tang rule to Jiaozhou.

Taking advantage of disturbances at the end of Tang Dynasty, a native noble from Cuc Bo (in the present-day Hải Dương Province), Khúc Thừa Dụ, made himself Jiedushi (military governor) of Jinghai in 905, and in 906 the Tang court had to recognize this a fait accompli. Khúc Thừa Dụ was admired by the people, he later worked with the Tang to establish himself as the first local self-appointed governor who ended the practice of governors sent by the Imperial court from other regions. Khuc Thua Du's son, Khúc Hạo, tried to set up a national administration.

After the Tang dynasty was ousted by the Later Liang (Five Dynasties) in northern China, China split in different Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Emperors of Later Liang in Northern Central China and the Southern Han in Southern China both claimed to be the sole legitimate Emperors of China. The Jiedushi Khúc Thừa Mỹ (Qu Changmei) chose to recognize the Later Liang in Central China as the legitimate ruler and acknowledged themselves as part of the Later Liang and resisted and fought against the Southern Han. Unlike most of Tang provinces during the Five Dynasties era, Tĩnh Hải Quân (Jinghai-jun) did not declared independence.

In 930 the Southern Han dynasty had taken power in southern China, again invaded the country and defeated Khúc Thừa Mỹ. In 931, another local, Dương Đình Nghệ (Yang Tingyi) took up the fight and made himself governor. In 931, Dương Đình Nghệ was murdered by his aide Kiều Công Tiễn. Ngô Quyền, a general under Nghệ, revolted against Tiễn and took control of the military. In 938, a Southern Han fleet entered Vietnam by sea via the Bạch Đằng estuary (mouth of the river which flows into Hạ Long Bay). Ngô Quyền ordered iron-tipped stakes to be planted into the riverbed. At high-tide, a Vietnamese flotilla attacked the enemy then, pretending to escape, lured the Han ships into the water where the stakes, still covered by the tide, are beneath. At low-tide, the Vietnamese fleet counter-attacked, forcing the enemy to flee and impaled on the barrage of stakes.

The Bạch Đằng victory in 938 put an end to the period of Chinese imperial domination. In 939 Ngô Quyền proclaimed himself not Governor but King, establishing the Ngô Dynasty. He put his capital at Cổ Loa, the old capital of Âu Lạc in the 3rd century BC and set up a centralized government.

After Ngô Quyền's death, Vietnam became embroiled in the Anarchy of the 12 Warlords. In 968, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh unified the country and declared himself as Emperor of Đại Cồ Việt.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Benn, Charles D. (2002). Daily life in traditional China: the Tang dynasty. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 0-313-30955-8. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
Preceded by
Early Lý Dynasty
Dynasty of Vietnam
602–905/938
Succeeded by
Khúc family/Ngô Dynasty