The Virginian (1929 film)
The Virginian is a 1929 American pre-Code Western film directed by Victor Fleming and starring Gary Cooper, Walter Huston, and Richard Arlen. The film was based on the 1902 novel The Virginian by Owen Wister and adapted from the popular 1904 theatrical play Wister had collaborated on with playwright Kirke La Shelle.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Victor Fleming|
|Produced by||B. P. Schulberg|
Louis D. Lighton
|Based on||The Virginian (novel)|
by Owen Wister
|Music by||Karl Hajos|
|Edited by||William Shea|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
The Virginian is about a good-natured cowboy who romances the new schoolmarm and has a crisis of conscience when he learns his best friend is involved in cattle rustling. The film is well known for Cooper's line, "If you wanna call me that—smile", in response to a cuss by the antagonist.
A man known only as the Virginian (Gary Cooper) is ranch foreman at Box H Ranch near Medicine Bow, Wyoming. At a saloon in Medicine Bow, he and the cattle rustler Trampas (Walter Huston) vie for the attentions of a barmaid; when Trampas insults him, the Virginian pulls a gun and tells him to smile. Soon afterwards, Molly Wood (Mary Brian), a new schoolteacher from Vermont, arrives in town. The Virginian and a drifter named Steve (Richard Arlen) vie for her attentions, but she ultimately chooses the latter. However, as Steve was his childhood friend, the Virginian gives him a job at the ranch.
Unhappy with the Virginian's violent nature, Molly tries to change him but is unsuccessful. Meanwhile, Steve and the Virginian enjoy playing pranks together, switching babies during a baptism; they also make quail calls for secret communications. However, Steve falls in with Trampas' gang. Although warned by the Virginian that no good will come of it, Steve continues with the gang. When they (minus Trampas) steal cattle from Box H Ranch, the Virginian is forced to hang all involved, including Steve. The Virginian vows revenge on Trampas for forcing him to do so.
Disgusted by The Virginian's callousness, Molly leaves him. However, after he is shot in the back by Trampas, she decides to treat him, and they fall deeper in love; they eventually decide to marry. On their wedding day, Trampas comes back to town for revenge and challenges the Virginian to a shoot-out. The Virginian quickly draws his six-shooter and kills the bandit in the streets. He then marries Molly, and the two prepare to open their own ranch.
- Gary Cooper as the Virginian
- Walter Huston as Trampas
- Richard Arlen as Steven
- Mary Brian as Molly Stark Wood
- Chester Conklin as Uncle "Pa" Hughey
- Eugene Pallette as "Honey" Wiggin
- Victor Potel as Nebrasky
- E.H. Calvert as Judge Henry
- Helen Ware as Mrs. 'Ma' Taylor
- George Chandler as Bug Ears
- Randolph Scott as Rider (uncredited)
The Virginian was based on the novel of the same name written by Owen Wister and published in 1902, as well as its 1904 stage play adaptation. This was the first talkie adaptation of the novel, with two silent film adaptations released in 1914 and 1923. The film was not entirely faithful to the book.
The film was directed by Victor Fleming; it was his first sound film. Gary Cooper, who had previously appeared in several silent films, was cast as the Virginian; it was his first leading role in a western, and his first talkie. He was coached in the Virginian's accent by Randolph Scott.
Production began in late May 1929, with shooting done in Sonora and Lone Pine, California. The train station scenes were filmed in Jamestown, California. There was little studio shooting. To shoot outdoor scenes, the filmmakers used blimped cameras (cameras with internal soundproofing), which were a recent innovation.
Techniques and styleEdit
Rather than synchronize every sound on screen with a shown action, The Virginian treated sound as at times being independent of the action; this allowed for greater symbolism. The film also heavily used natural sounds, such as cattle. This was facilitated by the outdoor shooting locations.
The Virginian was released on 9 November 1929, with a theatrical rerelease in 1935. Bruce Eder, writing for Allmovie (a site run by the Rovi Corporation), notes that the film was a significant milestone in Cooper's career. According to the American Film Institute, The Virginian is "one of the first of the studio produced, large-scale, all-dialogue Westerns." However, as the main character has little dialogue, Cooper was typecast as a man of few words, described by film historian Lee Clark Mitchell as a "yup and nope" actor. Cooper later called it his favorite film.
The Virginian has been well received, with a 100% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes as of March 2012, based on five reviews. The review for Variety noted that the film mixed various aspects of previous Westerns. The review described the scene where The Virginian must send his comrades to certain death "one of the most harrowing and vivid sequences ever before the lenses". Eder praised the characterizations and use of sound, summarizing that the film was "a most worthwhile viewing experience". Film historian Colin Shindler notes that The Virginian, along with Cimarron, was one of the first Westerns to handle sound well. Film critic Emanuel Levy gives the film a B+, noting that Cooper showed moral conflict similar to his role in the later film High Noon (1952), which won an Academy Award.
Due to poor maintenance, by the 1960s the only surviving copies of The Virginian were of poor audio and visual quality; Eder describes them as being "a chore to watch". The alternative for most audiences was to watch the 1946 adaptation. In the 1990s, the film was restored and became more widely available. Another adaptation of the novel, a television series, ran for nine seasons from 1962 to 1971. The film also shaped the view of cowboys as chivalrous, slow-talking yet tough characters.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
- The Virginian (1929), The Internet Movie Database Retrieved June 20, 2014
- Crafton 1997, p. 331.
- "Full cast and crew for The Virginian". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- AFI, The Virginian.
- University of Wyoming, The Virginian Virtual.
- Levy, Virginian, The (1929).
- Eder, The Virginian.
- Ferguson 2004, p. 35.
- "Filming locations for The Virginian". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- Tibbetts 1985, p. 192.
- Tibbetts 1985, p. 132.
- "Soundtracks for The Virginian". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- Tibbetts 1985, p. 190.
- Rotten Tomatoes, The Virginian.
- Mitchell 1996, p. 95.
- Variety 1928, The Virginian.
- Shindler 1996, p. 81.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- Crafton, Donald (1997). The Talkies : American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926-1931. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-19585-8.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Virginian". Rovi. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- Levy, David. "Virginian, The (1929)". davidlevy.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
- Mitchell, Lee Clark (1996). Westerns: Making the Man in Fiction and Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-53234-9.
- Ferguson, Michael (2004). Idol Worship : A Shameless Celebration of Male Beauty in the Movies. Sarasota: STARbooks Press. ISBN 978-1-891855-48-1.
- Shindler, Colin (1996). Hollywood in Crisis: Cinema and American Society, 1929-1939. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-10313-8.
- "The Virginian". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "The Virginian". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "The Virginian". Variety. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "The Virginian Virtual Exhibit". American Heritage Center. University of Wyoming. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- Tibbetts, John C (1985). The American Theatrical Film : Stages in Development. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. ISBN 978-0-415-10313-8.