The Surrender of Breda
La rendición de Breda (English: The Surrender of Breda, also known as Las lanzas - The Lances) is a painting by the Spanish Golden Age painter Diego Velázquez. It was completed during the years 1634–35, inspired by Velázquez's visit to Italy with Ambrogio Spinola, the Genoese-born Spanish general who conquered Breda on June 5, 1625. The painting depicts the exchange of the key of Breda from the Dutch's possession, to the Spanish.
|The Surrender of Breda|
|Spanish: La rendición de Breda, |
|Type||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||307 cm × 367 cm (121 in × 144 in)|
|Location||Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain|
It is considered one of Velázquez's best works and his artistic abilities introduced new techniques to the Baroque style. Velázquez composed The Surrender of Breda into two halves, which included the Dutch leader Justinus van Nassau, and Spanish Genoese general, Spinola. Jan Morris has called it "one of the most Spanish of all pictures".
The Surrender of Breda depicts a military victory, the 1624 Siege of Breda, during the Eighty Years War. This war began due to a revolt against Philip II of Spain by the Seventeen Provinces, which today includes the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Velázquez captured the end of the battle, as he also differentiated the two sides, one which is the Dutch, and the other side, the Spanish. The art piece also presents the Spanish as a strong force on multiple levels. In addition to including both sides of the battle, Velázquez also gives facial expressions of fatigue, giving a very honest view of the reality to war.
The painting was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain between 1630 and 1635 for the palace of Buen Retiro along the eastern city limits of Madrid. It was displayed in the Hall of Realms with nineteen other paintings. The intention of the painting by Velázquez was to glorify the military accomplishments and acquisition by the Spanish, uplifting Philip IV. Shortly before the finish of The Surrender of Breda, Spain was one of the European countries that fell into economic decline. Also, Spanish art at the time was not very popular in terms of the interest and pursuit of the nobles who would have been funding the artist. Due to the circumstances in Spain, Velázquez was not set up for the success that he eventually achieved.
The decoration of the Hall of Realms was directed by the Spanish minister, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares. Velazquez was requested to paint relating to the subject of horse riding, one battle scene, and The Surrender of Breda. This work completed by Velazquez represents the most significant and undaunted painting in the Hall of Realms, as well as one of Velazquez's best works of art. Through the hundreds of paintings that Guzmán made use of,The Surrender of Breda would become the most important piece in the Hall of Realms.
Velázquez addresses the details of many individuals by painting the setting across two halves, where the battle takes place in the background. The surrender portion of the scene takes place in the foreground, with the leading individuals placed clearly in the center. The focus of the artwork is in the foreground, where the exchange of the keys are shown in the very front, while in the background, the smoky sky shows evidence of destruction and death.
The painting depicts many Spanish soldiers in comparison to the fewer number of Dutch soldiers, and the Dutch weapons appear to have been either destroyed, thrown away, or even surrendered as a result of their performance of the battle. In contrast, the victorious Spaniards stand before a mass of upright lances on the right side of the composition. José Ortega y Gasset described these lances as "the backbone of the entire picture and largely responsible for the impression of calm permeating this essentially lively scene." Velázquez used effective perception and aerial techniques that support The Surrender of Breda as one of the finest works by Velázquez. 
The Surrender of Breda, is painted in much lighter and brighter colors in comparison to other works of art by Velázquez. It is believed that the inspiration from the colors to the horses and soldiers, that Venetian painting holds a massive influence on the art piece. The colors of the art piece shows tranquility and the use of color connecting to a warm tone is just part of what makes the work extremely masterful.
There is no use of violent reds or bright blues, rather calm brown colors with dark shadows in the foreground are used. Velázquez's use of light and dark contrasts is one of the many reasons why the art work is considered to be masterfully completed. Also, there is believed to be a connection between Velázquez's use of color, as he had taken a trip to Italy to study Renaissance art. In addition to the color techniques he became equipped to, Velázquez also gained improved skills with space, perspective and light. 
The painting includes the Spanish troops on the right, in contrast to the Dutch troops to the left. However, the main focus is directed towards the center, where Justinus van Nassau is seen surrendering and handing over the key of the city to Spinola and Spain.  Spinola, the Genoese general, commanded the Spanish tercios which included pikeman, swordsman, and musketeers as displayed in the painting. 
An in-depth analysis and investigation was conducted to examine Velázquez's The Surrender of Breda around 1989 in Museo Prado. In the analysis, it was acknowledged that Velázquez used many of the similar pigments that he had used in other paintings of his. These pigments included lead white with calcite, azurite mixed with small amounts of charcoal black, ochres and vermilion. The painted was produced on canvas that is sized 307 cm x 367 cm.
The response to Velazquez's artwork was grand at the very least, with the critical reaction being that The Surrender of Breda was the most impressive Spanish works of art. Also, the artwork solidified Velazquez's effort as the most superb depiction of Spanish Baroque, provided that Baroque art was closely connected to humanity and how people should be seen and represented.
One of Velázquez's contemporaries, Peter Paul Rubens, has been cited to be an inspiration for the work connected to The Surrender of Breda. The two Baroque artists may not have similar style to be exact, however Ruben's prior works such as The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob, produced in 1624, has resemblance in terms of its composition and philosophical concepts. More commonly, Velázquez's piece has been tied to Rubens' Meeting of King Ferdinand of Hungary and Cardinal, completed in 1635. The possibility of influence on Rubens' later work has been argued, as both Velazquez and Rubens completed their work around the same time. More likely, both artists produced very similar work in addition to having such a close relationship. Velázquez's work also seems to have been inspired by his trip to Italy with Spinola.
The painting illustrates the exchange of keys that occurred three days after the capitulation between Spain and the Netherlands was signed on June 5, 1625. Hence, the focus of the painting is not on the battle itself, but rather the reconciliation. At the center of the painting, literally and figuratively, is the key given to Ambrogio Spinola by Justin of Nassau. This battle painting is notable for its static and sentimental qualities, as Velázquez left out the blood and gore that would normally be linked to the violence of such battles.
According to the statement made by eye-witnesses, both [Spinola and Nassau] had dismounted and Spinola awaited the arrival of Justin surrounded by a “crown” of princes and officers of high birth. The governor then presented himself with his family, kinsfolk and distinguished students of the military academy, who had been shut up in the place during the siege. Spinola greeted and embraced his vanquished opponent with a kindly expression and still more kindly words, in which praised the courage and endurance of the protracted defense.
The extraordinary respect and dignity Spinola demonstrated towards the Dutch army is praised through The Surrender of Breda. Spinola “had forbidden his troops to jeer at, or otherwise abuse the vanquished Dutch, and, according to a contemporary report, he himself saluted Justin.” The painting demonstrates the glimpses of humanity that can be exposed as a result of the war and commends Spinola's consideration for Nassau and the Dutch army.
Velázquez's relationship with Spinola makes The Surrender of Breda especially historically accurate. The depiction of Spinola is undoubtedly accurate, and Spinola's memory of the battle contributed to the perspective with which Velázquez composed the painting. Velázquez's knowledge of the intimate history of the siege of Breda makes The Surrender of Breda an especially important historical commentary. Velázquez “desired in his modest way to raise a monument to one of the most humane captains of the day, by giving permanence to his true figure in a manner of which he alone had the secret.”
- Prado Museum
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