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The Shadow over Innsmouth

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The Shadow over Innsmouth is a horror novella by American author H. P. Lovecraft, written in November–December 1931. It forms part of the Cthulhu Mythos, using its motif of a malign undersea civilization, and references several shared elements of the Mythos, including place-names, mythical creatures, and invocations. The Shadow over Innsmouth is the only Lovecraft story which was published in book form during his lifetime.

The Shadow over Innsmouth
Shadow Over Innsmouth (dust jacket - first edition).jpg
Dust jacket from the first edition
Author H. P. Lovecraft
Illustrator Frank Utpatel
Cover artist Frank Utpatel
Country United States
Language English
Genre Horror
Publisher Visionary Publishing Company
Publication date
April 1936
OCLC 3920225
Text The Shadow over Innsmouth at Wikisource

The narrator is a student conducting an antiquarian tour of New England. After seeing a piece of exotic jewelry in a museum, he learns that its source is the nearby decrepit seaport of Innsmouth. He travels to Innsmouth, interacting with strange people, and observes disturbing events that ultimately lead to horrifying, and personal, revelations.

Contents

PlotEdit

The narrator explains how he instigated a secret investigation of the ruined town of Innsmouth, Massachusetts, by the U.S. government. He proceeds to describe in detail the events surrounding his initial interest in the town, which lies along the route of his tour across New England, taken when he was twenty-one. While he waits for the bus that will take him to Innsmouth, he busies himself in the neighboring Newburyport by gathering information on the town from the locals; all of it having superstitious overtones. The narrator finds Innsmouth to be a mostly deserted fishing town, full of dilapidated buildings and people who walk with a distinct shambling gait and have "queer narrow heads with flat noses and bulgy, stary eyes". The only person in town who appears normal is a grocery store clerk from neighboring Arkham. The narrator gathers much information from the clerk, including a map of the town and the name of Zadok Allen, an elderly local who might give him information when plied with drink. The narrator hears repeatedly that outsiders are never welcomed in Innsmouth, and that strangers, particularly government investigators, have disappeared when they pry too deeply into the town.

The narrator meets Zadok, who explains that an Innsmouth merchant named Obed Marsh discovered a race of fish-like humanoids known as the Deep Ones. When hard times fell on the town, Obed established a cult called the Esoteric Order of Dagon, which offered human sacrifices to the Deep Ones in exchange for wealth in the form of large fish hauls and unique jewelry. When Obed and his followers were arrested, the Deep Ones attacked the town and killed more than half of its population, leaving the survivors with no other choice than to continue Obed's practices. Male and female inhabitants were forced to breed with the Deep Ones, producing hybrid offspring which have the appearance of normal humans in early life but, in adulthood, slowly transform into Deep Ones themselves and leave the surface to live in ancient undersea cities for eternity. Zadok sees strange waves approaching the dock and tells the narrator that they have been seen, urging him to leave town immediately. The narrator is unnerved, but ultimately dismisses the story. Once he leaves, Zadok disappears and is never seen again.

After being told that the bus is experiencing engine trouble, the narrator has no choice but to spend the night in a musty hotel. While attempting to sleep, he hears noises at his door as if someone is trying to enter. Wasting no time, he escapes out a window and through the streets while a town-wide hunt for him occurs, forcing him at times to imitate the peculiar walk of the Innsmouth locals as he walks past search parties in the darkness. Eventually, he makes his way towards railroad tracks and hears a procession of Deep Ones passing in the road before him. Against his judgment, he opens his eyes to see the creatures and faints at his hiding spot. He wakes up unharmed. Over the years that pass, he researches his family tree and discovers that he is a descendant of Obed Marsh, and realizes that he is changing into one of the Deep Ones. As the story ends, the narrator is accepting his fate and feels he will be happy living with the Deep Ones. He plans to break out his cousin, even further transformed than he, and take him to the Deep Ones' city beneath the sea.

CharactersEdit

Pht'thya-l'y
 
 
 
 
 
 
Obed Marsh
 
 
 
 
 
1st wife
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2 children Benjamin Orne
 
daughter Onesiphorus March
 
wife 3 daughters
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
James Williamson
 
 
 
Eliza Orne Barnabas Marsh
 
wife
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Douglas Williamson narrator's father
 
narrator's mother Walter Williamson
 
wife
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
narrator Lawrence Williamson
  • Robert Olmstead: Olmstead is the narrator of the story, who discovers Innsmouth on a tour of New England while seeking genealogical information, and finds more than he bargained for.
The character, unnamed in "The Shadow over Innsmouth", is called "Robert Olmstead" in Lovecraft's notes for the story, published in Arkham House's Something About Cats and Other Pieces (1949).[1] An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia points out that Olmstead's travel habits parallel Lovecraft's own—Lovecraft too would "seek the cheapest route", and Olmstead's dinner of "vegetable soup with crackers" is typical of Lovecraft's low-budget diet.[2]
  • Obed Marsh: wealthy sea captain, patriarch of the elite Marsh family, and the founder of the Esoteric Order of Dagon. He was referred to by Zadok Allen as being the man who first summoned the Deep Ones to Innsmouth. In 1846, he was jailed after the towns bordering Innsmouth became suspicious of his crew. He died in 1878.
According to Lovecraft's story notes, Marsh's daughter, Alice, is Robert Olmstead's great-grandmother.[3]
  • Barnabas Marsh: Known as Old Man Marsh, he is the grandson of Obed Marsh and the owner of the Marsh refinery at the time of The Shadow Over Innsmouth. Barnabas' father was Onesiphorus Marsh, Obed's son by his fully human wife; though Barnabas' mother, who was never seen in public, was apparently an actual Deep One. Zadok Allen says of him: "Right naow Barnabas is abaout changed. Can't shet his eyes no more, an' is all aout o' shape. They say he still wears clothes, but he'll take to the water soon."
  • Zadok Allen: One of the few completely human residents of Innsmouth, and an alcoholic. His drunken ramblings allow Lovecraft to convey much of the town's secret backstory to the story's protagonist. Born in 1831, Allen disappears, and dies in 1927, after being kidnapped and sacrificed by the Esoteric Order of Dagon.
An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia notes that Allen resembles—and shares his years of birth and death with—Jonathan E. Hoag, an amateur poet of Lovecraft's acquaintance. A possible literary inspiration is the character of Dr. Humphrey Lathrop in Herbert Gorman's The Place Called Dagon (1927), who, like Allen, is a drinker who knows the secret history of his town.[4]
  • Grocery store clerk: An unnamed youth of about seventeen who is a native resident of Arkham, and therefore completely human. His superiors transferred him to Innsmouth, and both he and his family loathe the idea of him working there, but he cannot afford to quit his job. He is only too happy to encounter the narrator, and describes the sinister goings-on within Innsmouth, but the boy is unaware of what is really happening in the town. He tells the narrator of the bizarre deformities afflicting the native townspeople, and how the older generation are almost never seen outdoors due to their monstrous appearance. He also briefly informs the narrator of the Esoteric Order of Dagon, and what he knows of the town's society, and directs him to the drunkard, Zadok Allen, for more information.

InspirationEdit

Both of Lovecraft's parents died in a mental hospital, and some critics believe that a concern with having inherited a propensity for physical and mental degeneration is reflected in the plot of The Shadow over Innsmouth. It also shares some themes with his earlier story, "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family".[5] Cthulhu, an entity from previous Lovecraft stories, is the overlord of the sea creatures. The mind of the narrator deteriorates when he is afforded a glimpse of what exists outside his perceived reality. This is a central tenet of Cosmicism, which Lovecraft emphasizes in the opening sentence of "The Call of Cthulhu": "The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents."[6]

Lovecraft based the town of Innsmouth on his impressions of Newburyport, Massachusetts, which he had visited in 1923 and fall 1931.[7] The real Newburyport features as a neighboring town in the narrative. A likely influence on the plot is Lovecraft's horror of miscegenation, which is documented by Lovecraft biographer L. Sprague de Camp[8] and others.

Robert M. Price cites two works as literary sources for The Shadow over Innsmouth: Robert W. Chambers' "The Harbor-Master" and Irvin S. Cobb's "Fishhead". Chambers' story concerns the discovery of "the remnants of the last race of amphibious human beings," living in a five-mile deep chasm just off the Atlantic coast. The creature of the title is described as "a man with round, fixed, fishy eyes, and soft, slaty skin. But the horror of the thing were the two gills that swelled and relaxed spasmodically."[9] Lovecraft was evidently impressed by this tale, writing in a letter to Frank Belknap Long: "God! The Harbour-Master!!!"[10] "Fishhead" is the story of a "human monstrosity" with an uncanny resemblance to a fish: his skull sloped back so abruptly that he could hardly be said to have a forehead at all; his chin slanted off right into nothing. His eyes were small and round with shallow, glazed, pink-yellow pupils, and they were set wide apart on his head, and they were unwinking and staring, like a fish's eyes.[11] Lovecraft, in "Supernatural Horror in Literature," called Cobb's story "banefully effective in its portrayal of unnatural affinities between a hybrid idiot and the strange fish of an isolated lake".[12] Price notes that Fishhead, as the "son of a Negro father and a half-breed Indian mother," "embodies unambiguously the basic premise of The Shadow Over Innsmouth.... This, of course, is really what Lovecraft found revolting in the idea of interracial marriage...the subtextual hook of different ethnic races mating and 'polluting' the gene pool."[13] Price points out the resemblance in names between the Deep One city of Y'ha-nthlei and Yoharneth-Lahai, a fictional deity in Lord Dunsany's The Gods of Pegana, who "sendeth little dreams out of Pegana to please the people of Earth"—a precursor to Lovecraft's fictional deity Cthulhu, who sends less pleasant dreams from R'lyeh.[14]

The description of the Deep Ones has similarities to the sea creature described in H.G. Wells' short story "In the Abyss" (1896)[15]:

Two large and protruding eyes projected from sockets in chameleon fashion, and it had a broad reptilian mouth with horny lips beneath its little nostrils. In the position of the ears were two huge gill-covers, and out of these floated a branching tree of coralline filaments, almost like the tree-like gills that very young rays and sharks possess. But the humanity of the face was not the most extraordinary thing about the creature. It was a biped; its almost globular body was poised on a tripod of two frog-like legs and a long, thick tail, and its fore limbs, which grotesquely caricatured the human hand, much as a frog’s do, carried a long shaft of bone, tipped with copper. The colour of the creature was variegated; its head, hands, and legs were purple; but its skin, which hung loosely upon it, even as clothes might do, was a phosphorescent grey.

Cthulhu MythosEdit

  • Cthulhu and R'lyeh are mentioned, the former in passing by Zadok Allen, and both toward the end of the narrative.
  • The creature known as Dagon is first introduced in Lovecraft's 1917 tale of the same name.
  • As related in "The Thing on the Doorstep" (1937), Asenath Waite, the possessed victim of her father Ephraim Waite, is by implication one of the human/Deep One hybrids, and was a resident of Innsmouth before attending Miskatonic University. The servants she brings into her marriage to Edward Derby are likewise Innsmouth natives. This occurs after The Shadow over Innsmouth and Asenath's father and she escaped the government raid mentioned in the original story.[original research?]
  • The Waites, Gilmans, Eliots and Marshes are the "gently bred" families of Innsmouth. Despite his name, the protagonist of "The Dreams in the Witch House", Walter Gilman, is not established as having any links to Innsmouth or the Deep Ones.
  • August Derleth also used the Deep Ones in the short story "Innsmouth Clay", which he completed from Lovecraft's notes. "The Shuttered Room" is another short story started by Lovecraft, and finished by Derleth, which also involves the Deep Ones. It mentions a connection between the Marsh family of Innsmouth and the Whateley family of Dunwich from "The Dunwich Horror".

PublicationEdit

 
Although rejected by the magazine during Lovecraft's lifetime, The Shadow over Innsmouth was reprinted in Weird Tales in 1942

Lovecraft was quite critical of The Shadow over Innsmouth, writing to August Derleth that the story "has all the defects I deplore—especially in point of style, where hackneyed phrases & rhythms have crept in despite all precautions.... No—I don't intend to offer 'The Shadow Over Innsmouth' for publication, for it would stand no chance of acceptance."[16]

The story was rejected by Weird Tales editor Farnsworth Wright when Derleth surreptitiously submitted it for publication in 1933. "I have read Lovecraft's story...and must confess that it fascinates me," he wrote to Derleth. "But I don't know just what I can do with it. It is hard to break a story of this kind into two parts, and it is too long to run complete in one part."[17]

In late 1935, William L. Crawford's Visionary Publishing Company began the process of issuing The Shadow Over Innsmouth as a book. The project came to fruition in November 1936 (although the copyright page declares the date of publication as April 1936), but the book had so many typographical errors that Lovecraft insisted on an errata sheet (which was also faulty). Lovecraft was displeased with the production; writing to his correspondent Lee McBride White on Nov 30, 1936, he wrote: "My Shadow Over Innsmouth is now out - but as a first cloth-bound book it doesn't awake any enthusiasm in me. Indeed, it is one of the lousiest jobs I've ever seen - 30 misprints, slovenly format, & loose, slipshod binding. The solitary redeeming feature is the set of Utpatel illustrations - one of which, on the dust wrapper, saves the appearance of the thing..." [18]

It had a bound run of 200 copies — the only book of Lovecraft's fiction distributed during his lifetime.[19][20] Crawford had printed 400 copies but bound only 200; the others were destroyed later. Of this edition Robert Weinberg has written: "Only a few hundred copies of the book were printed, and even less than that were sold, even though it was available at the bargain price of $1 per copy. It featured good paper, black linen binding and four illustrations by [rank Utpatel. The book was the only bound hardcover to appear during Lovecraft's lifetime and became one of the true rarities in the collecting field. Its failure, and the poor sales of third non-fantasy book convinced William Crawford of the futility of his efforts." [21]

After Lovecraft's death (and Wright's), the story appeared in an unauthorized abridged version in the January 1942 issue of Weird Tales.[22]

ReceptionEdit

As L Sprague de Camp noted, the action sections of Innsmouth are a departure for Lovecraft; the story's tense and memorable siege scene within the titular town's hotel reveals a flair in execution on a par with some of the most compelling chapters of R L Stevenson's Kidnapped. August Derleth called The Shadow over Innsmouth "a dark, brooding story, typical of Lovecraft at his best."[23] Robert Weinberg praised it as "a well-written story".[24] According to de Camp, Lovecraft distrusted his ability to narrate action, and the story is unusual in that Lovecraft includes sustained and effective[8] action writing during the culmination of the events in Innsmouth.

AdaptationsEdit

Film and televisionEdit

  • Colombian writer Andres Caicedo adapted The Shadow over Innsmouth into a screenplay in 1973. He travelled to Hollywood in 1975 to sell it to Roger Corman, alongside his adaptation of Clark Ashton Smith's The Nameless Offspring, but failed in his purpose. Neither of the screenplays were shot and remain as part of the Andres Caicedo Collection in the Luis Angel Arango Library in Bogota.[citation needed]
  • Chiaki J. Konaka adapted The Shadow over Innsmouth for Japanese television as Insmus wo Oou Kage in 1992.
  • The Shadow over Innsmouth forms the principal storyline in Stuart Gordon's 2001 film Dagon. Full Moon Entertainment was going to release Gordon's original adaptation (under the original novella's title) in 1991, using Bernie Wrightson's character designs, but the project was unrealized. Dagon uses some of Wrightson's designs from that project.[25]
  • The 2007 film Cthulhu is loosely based on The Shadow over Innsmouth.
  • The 2014 music video for "Escape from Midwich Valley" by Carpenter Brut and the 2015 short film Innsmouth are also based on The Shadow over Innsmouth.
  • The 2005 episode of The Mighty Boosh, "The Legend of Old Gregg", appears to draw inspiration from the story, including a town with strange residents surrounded by mystery, an elderly fisherman who tells the main characters the history of the town and Old Gregg himself, who is a human-fish hybrid.
  • In 2015, the production and eventual publication of a film titled The Shadow over Innsmouth was announced on the website The Lovecraft Ezine.[26][27] The film project, cited to be a very faithful adaptation of the novella, was directed by Bryan Moore, who worked on a previous cinematic conversion of the Lovecraft short story "Cool Air".[28]

Video gamesEdit

  • Shadow of the Comet, a 1993 adventure game, takes place in a cult-controlled town of Illsmouth, an alteration on Lovecraft's Innsmouth.
  • Innsmouth no Yakata (インスマウスの館, lit. "The Mansion of Innsmouth") is a 1995 3D first-person shooter video game for the Virtual Boy, released in Japan based on Chiaki J. Konaka's 1992 television series Insmus wo Oou Kage. It featured a branching level structure and four possible endings.
  • In the 2005 first-person action-adventure video game Call of Cthulhu: Dark Corners of the Earth the town of Innsmouth is the backdrop, the opening plot of which follows the second, third and fourth chapters of the novella with a great degree of accuracy (with a different protagonist). Dark Corners of the Earth was supposed to be followed by a sequel set in the 2000s, titled Call of Cthulhu: Destiny's End, now cancelled.
  • Indie game Chronicle of Innsmouth (production started in 2015[29]) is directly based on the plot of The Shadow over Innsmouth.
  • In the fictional universe of the 2013 fighting game Skullgirls, there's a neighborhood in the game's world known as "Little Innsmouth", which is inhabited by fish-like humanoids, and which also serves as the stage for Ms. Fortune, one of the game's characters.
  • A hamlet inhabited by gruesome fishermen in Bloodborne (2015) allegedly draw its inspiration from the accursed fishing village in The Shadow over Innsmouth. The game also features several deities which are referred to as "Great Ones".
  • The Far Harbor expansion of the 2015 game Fallout 4 may draw inspiration from the Lovecraft universe, particularly The Shadow over Innsmouth.[citation needed]
  • The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion has a quest named "A shadow over Hackdirt" .The quest follows roughly the same plot as the novel. E.g the player goes to the small mysterious town and finds out the townspeople are a part of a cult who worship beings who live under ground, the townspeople call these beings "The Deep Ones" also if the player waits in the cave the "Deep Ones" can be heard roaring, inidcating that they are real and are there.
  • The online video game The Secret World features a town called Kingsmouth in which many supernatural events occur. Additionally, the Innsmouth Academy is a part of the Solomon Island zone in which Kingsmouth may be found. The Secret World borrows heavily from the Lovecraftian mythos as well as many other continuities.

ComicsEdit

Card and board gamesEdit

  • Magic the Gathering's "Innistrad" block and its follow up, the "Shadows over Innistrad" block, contain minor references to The Shadow over Innsmouth. "Shadows over Innistrad" tells the story of the planeswalker Jace Beleren investigating the source of madness affecting the residents of Innistrad and their angelic protectors. The source is revealed to be Emrakul, one of a race of ancient beings called Eldrazi, who draw heavy influence from Lovecraft. In addition to inducing madness, Emrakul's influence warps the physiology of living beings in her vicinity, giving them a distinctive "look" of latticed flesh, additional appendages, and other strange mutations.
  • The board game Mansions of Madness Second Edition utilizes the story of The Shadow Over Innsmouth as one the scenarios players can choose to play. Players begin the scenario in a hotel room in a rundown seaport town and take turns trying to uncover the mystery of what happened in Innsmouth before they find themselves stranded in a town flooded with supernatural problems. The companion app for the board game includes quotes from Lovecraft's original work and there are several miniature figures referred to as Deep Ones. Additionally, an expansion for the board game Arkham Horror features the town of Innsmouth and includes references to Lovecraft's piece. The game is titled, Arkham Horror: The Innsmouth Horror Expansion.[30]

OtherEdit

Shadows over InnsmouthEdit

The Shadow over Innsmouth was republished in a 1994 anthology with stories by other authors based on Innsmouth and the Old Ones in Shadows over Innsmouth. The collection was edited by Stephen Jones, and included contributions by Neil Gaiman, Ramsey Campbell, David Sutton, Kim Newman (both as himself and Jack Yeovil), and other authors.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz, "Olmstead, Robert", An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia, p. 194.
  2. ^ S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz, "The Shadow Over Innsmouth", An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia, pp. 239–240.
  3. ^ Joshi and Schultz, "Olmstead, Robert", p. 194.
  4. ^ S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz, "Allen, Zadok", An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia, pp. 3, 239.
  5. ^ Ronan, Margaret, Foreword to The Shadow over Innsmouth and Other Stories of Horror, Scholastic Book Services, 1971
  6. ^ HP Lovecraft, "The Call of Cthulhu" (1928).
  7. ^ The Call of Cthulhu and Other Dark Tales, Barnes and Noble, 2009, p. 344
  8. ^ a b de Camp, L Sprague. Lovecraft: A Biography. 
  9. ^ Robert W. Chambers, "The Harbor-Master," The Innsmouth Cycle, p. 22.
  10. ^ H. P. Lovecraft, letter to Frank Belknap Long, October 17, 1930; cited in Robert M. Price, The Innsmouth Cycle, p. 3.
  11. ^ Irvin S. Cobb, "Fishhead," The Innsmouth Cycle, p. 27.
  12. ^ H. P. Lovecraft, "Supernatural Horror in Literature," Dagon and Other Macabre Tales, p. 411.
  13. ^ Robert M. Price, The Innsmouth Cycle, p. 24. The creature in "The Harbor-Master" is mistaken for a "demented darky". Chambers, "The Harbor-Master," p. 20.
  14. ^ Lord Dunsany, "Of Yoharneth-Lahai," The Innsmouth Cycle, p. 2.
  15. ^ "In the Abyss"
  16. ^ H. P. Lovecraft, letter to August Derleth, December 10, 1931; cited in Joshi and Schultz, p. 238.
  17. ^ Farnsworth Wright, letter to August Derleth, January 17, 1933; cited in Joshi and Schultz, pp. 238–239.
  18. ^ H. P. Lovecraft. Letters to J. Vernon Shea, Carl F. Strauch and Lee McBride White. ed. S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz. NY: Hippocampus Press, 2016, p. 378
  19. ^ Lin Carter, Lovecraft: A Look Behind the Cthulhu Mythos, p. 83.
  20. ^ August Derleth, "H. P. Lovecraft—Outsider," p. 18, Crypt of Cthulhu #93.
  21. ^ Robert Weinberg, "Science Fiction Specialty Publishers" in Hall, Hal W. (ed). Science Fiction Collections: Fantasy, Supernatural and Weird Tales. Haworth Press, 1983, p. 119
  22. ^ Price, p. 34.
  23. ^ Carter, p. 83.
  24. ^ Robert Weinberg, The Weird Tales Story. FAX Colle ctor’s Editions.ISBN 0913960160 (p. 45)
  25. ^ Mullins, Craig (2009-03-22). "Unfilmable.com: Pickman's Models: Shadow Over Innsmouth". Unfilmable.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27. 
  26. ^ Davis, Mike (2015-09-15). "The Lovecraft Ezine.com: Coming soon: A new film adaption of "The Shadow Over Innsmouth"!". The Lovecraft Ezine.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  27. ^ Davis, Mike (2015-11-16). "Teaser/Trailer for the upcoming "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" film". The Lovecraft Ezine.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  28. ^ "Return of the Lurkers: Bryan Moore's Cool Air & The Shadow Over Innsmouth preview". H.P. Lovecraft Film Festival.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  29. ^ "Adventure Game Studio | Forums | Chronicle of Innsmouth - On Steam greenlight - Demo available [Updated 10-05-2015]". www.adventuregamestudio.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  30. ^ https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/40776/arkham-horror-innsmouth-horror-expansion
  31. ^ Sowers, Pru (2012-01-30). "Winter play series kicks off at Provincetown Theater - - Wicked Local Wellfleet". Wickedlocal.com. Retrieved 2012-05-27. 

SourcesEdit

  • Chalker, Jack L.; Mark Owings (1998). The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. p. 705. 
  • Derleth, August (Lammas 1996) [1937]. "H. P. Lovecraft—Outsider". Crypt of Cthulhu. 15 (3).  Check date values in: |date= (help) Robert M. Price (ed.), West Warwick, RI: Necronomicon Press. Original publication: "H. P. Lovecraft—Outsider". River. 1 (3). June 1937. 
  • Lovecraft, Howard P. [1936] (1984). "The Shadow Over Innsmouth". In S. T. Joshi (ed.). The Dunwich Horror and Others (9th corrected printing ed.). Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. ISBN 0-87054-037-8.  Definitive version.

External linksEdit