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The Paradisus Londonensis (full title The Paradisus Londonensis : or Coloured Figures of Plants Cultivated in the Vicinity of the Metropolis) is a book dated 1805–1808,[2] printed by D.N. Shury, and published by William Hooker.[3] It consists of coloured illustrations of 117 plants drawn by William Hooker, with explanatory text by Richard Anthony Salisbury.

The Paradisus Londonensis : or Coloured Figures of Plants Cultivated in the Vicinity of the Metropolis
Paradisus Londinensis (96 Curcuma aromatica).jpg
Part of 96, Curcuma aromatica
AuthorRichard Anthony Salisbury, William Hooker
Publication date
1805[1]

Contents

PublicationEdit

The Paradisus Londinensis was constructed as two volumes, each of two parts. The plates were in one part, the text in the other. The title page of the first volume and part bears the date 1805 and identifies the illustrator and publisher as Hooker. The title page of the second part identifies the author of the text as Salisbury.[4] It has often been catalogued as 1805–1807,[5] although some later plates are dated 1808.[4] The International Plant Names Index dates the parts as follows:[2]

  • 1(1): 1 Jun 1805 – 1 May 1806
  • 1(2): 1 Jun 1806 – 1 Sep 1808
  • 2(1): 1 Jun 1807 – 1 May 1808
  • 2(2): 1 Jun 1808 – 1 Sep 1808

Botanical significanceEdit

New botanical namesEdit

The Paradisus Londinensis (abbreviated to Parad. Lond. in botanical citations) is a significant source of botanical names, with around 150 attributed to Salisbury on the basis of this publication. Some have been superseded, but others are still in use. The names include:[6]

Dispute with SmithEdit

The Paradisus Londinensis preserves a record of a dispute between Salisbury and James Edward Smith which had (and still has) consequences for the acceptance of botanical names first published by Salisbury, in this work and others. Smith and Salisbury had become friends while studying at the University of Edinburgh. Later in life, in 1802, they quarrelled. Smith was a strong supporter of Linnaeus's systema sexuale (sexual system) for classifying plants.[7] He had bought Linnaeus's entire collection of books, manuscripts and specimens, and founded the Linnean Society in 1788.[8] Salisbury on the other hand was a supporter of the natural system of classification,[7] in particular that of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, published in Genera Plantarum in 1789 – the system used in Paradisus Londinensis.[9]

In his 1807 work, An introduction to physiological and systematical botany, Smith had used newly discovered plants from the west coast of British Columbia, Canada (plants which he did not name) to support the view that the tepals of lilioid monocots were actually sepals, since their flowers had what Smith regarded as six internal petals.[10] In The Paradisus Londinensis, in the notes to number 98, dated 1 March 1808, Salisbury named these plants as the genus Hookera with two species H. coronaria and H. pulchella. (The latter is illustrated as number 117.) Salisbury pointed out that the supposed internal petals were actually stamens (three sterile ones and the bases of three normal ones). He also disputed Smith's association of the plant with Agapanthus, placing it instead with Allium. He says "I regret much to dissent so often from the celebrated lecturer [Smith]".[11]

Shortly afterwards in 1808, Smith named a moss genus Hookeria and read to the Linnean Society a formal description of a new genus, based on the same species as Salisbury's Hookera coronaria, naming the genus Brodiaea in honour of Scottish botanist James Brodie. (The presentation was not published until 1810.)[12] George Boulger, writing in the Dictionary of National Biography, says that Smith's actions were deliberately intended to deprive Salisbury of credit for the genus Hookera.[7] In the text for figure 117, dated 1 September 1808, Salisbury says that "Smith, to suit his own purpose, was utterly silent" on the prior naming of the genus by Salisbury, and that Smith's "multiplied acts of injustice to me whether open or concealed, I sincerely forgive."[13]

If it was Smith's deliberate intention to suppress Salisbury's botanical names by giving a moss a confusingly similar name and by renaming Hookera to Brodiaea, he was, initially at least, successful. James Britten, writing much later in 1886, argued that the then established name Brodiaea should be replaced by Hookera, which had priority.[14] (He also showed how many of Salisbury's other names had been ignored.[15]) However, Smith's Hookeria and Brodiaea had become so widely used that they were made conserved names, and Hookera was not reinstated. Salisbury's epithet coronaria in his Hookera coronaria is still used in the combination Brodiaea coronaria. As of September 2013, Hookera pulchella is considered as a synonym, either in full or in part, for Dichelostemma congestum or Dichelostemma capitatum,[16] and the epithet pulchella is not used, although Britten had argued for its priority.[14]

ContentsEdit

The 117 plants illustrated in The Paradisus Londinensis are listed below. Salisbury's original orthography is given in brackets where different from modern usage.[17] Accepted names as of September 2013 are taken from The Plant List,[18] unless otherwise referenced. An asterisk indicates that no accepted name has been found.

  1. Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.
  2. Protea acuifolia *
  3. Bryophyllum calycinum = Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken
  4. Vaccinium buxifolium *
  5. Magnolia annonifolia [Magnolia annonaefolia] = Magnolia figo (Lour.) DC. var. figo
  6. Gompholobium psoraleifolium [Gompholobium psoraleaefolium] *
  7. Podalyria argentea Salisb.
  8. Gladiolus concolor = Gladiolus tristis L.
  9. Aphyllanthes juncea = Aphyllanthes monspeliensis L.
  10. Moraea odora [Morea odora] = Moraea fugax (D.Delaroche) Jacq. subsp. fugax
  11. Protea glaucophylla = Protea acaulos Reich.
  12. Crossandra undulifolia [Crossandra undulaefolia] = Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees
  13. Coronilla viminalis Salisb.
  14. Castalia magnifica = Nymphaea magnifica *
  15. Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér.
  16. Dahlia sambucifolia = Dahlia pinnata Cav.
  17. Dioscorea tamifolia = Dioscorea bulbifera L.
  18. Reaumuria linifolia *
  19. Dahlia bidentifolia = Dahlia coccinea Cav.
  20. Convolvulus pannifolius *
  21. Leucojum autumnale = Acis autumnalis (L.) Sweet
  22. Hibiscus grandiflorus *
  23. Pelargonium nummulifolium *
  24. Protea mucronifolia *
  25. Cacalia bicolor = Gynura bicolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC.
  26. Campanula alliariifolia Willd. [Campanula alliariaefolia]
  27. Protea lacticolor *
  28. Swainsona coronillifolia [Swainsona coronillaefolia] = Swainsona galegifolia (Andrews) R.Br.
  29. Columnea rotundifolia = Columnea scandens L.
  30. Crocus serotinus Salisb.
  31. Yucca recurvifolia = Yucca gloriosa var. tristis Carrière[19]
  32. Sabatia gracilis [Sabbatia gracilis] = Sabatia campanulata var. gracilis *
  33. Hibiscus acerifolius = Hibiscus syriacus L.
  34. Eustoma silenifolium = Eustoma exaltatum (L.) Salisb.
  35. Trillium foetidum = Trillium erectum L. var. erectum
  36. Phyllodoce taxifolia = Phyllodoce caerulea (L.) Bab.
  37. Protea longifolia *
  38. Magnolia conspicua = Magnolia denudata Desr.
  39. Pelargonium pulchellum *
  40. Bromelia aquilega = Aechmea aquilega (Salisb.) Griseb.
  41. Goodia lotifolia Salisb.
  42. Woodfordia floribunda = Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz
  43. Magnolia auricularis = Magnolia fraseri Walter
  44. Menziesia globularis *
  45. Convolvulus farinosus L.
  46. Gardenia crassicaulis = Gardenia thunbergia Thunb.
  47. Lilium concolor Salisb.
  48. Billardiera mutabilis Salisb.
  49. Cymburus mutabilis = Stachytarpheta mutabilis (Jacq.) Vahl
  50. Justicia virgularis = Anisacanthus quadrifidus (Vahl) Nees
  51. Clitoria calcarigera *
  52. Crinum yucciflorum [Crinum yuccaeflorum] = Crinum zeylanicum (L.) L.
  53. Cymburus urticifolius [Cymburus urticaefolius] = Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
  54. Ornithoglossum glaucum = Ornithoglossum viride (L.f.) Dryand. ex W.T.Aiton
  55. Hamelia grandiflora = Hamelia ventricosa Sw.
  56. Lacathea florida *
  57. Dianthus pomeridianus L. *
  58. Chamaenerion halimifolium [Chamaenerium halmifolium] = Epilobium latifolium L.
  59. Tradescantia crassifolia Cav.
  60. Astrantia helleborifolia = Astrantia maxima Pall
  61. Bignonia grandiflora = Campsis grandiflora (Thunb.) K.Schum.
  62. Dianthus collinus Waldst. & Kit.
  63. Carpolyza spiralis = Strumaria spiralis (L'Hér.) W.T.Aiton
  64. Anneslia falcifolia = Calliandra houstoniana Standl. var. anomala (Kunth) Barneby (The drawing has A. grandiflora, corrected to A. falcifolia in the text.)
  65. Rothmannia longiflora Salisb.
  66. Oxalis glandulitega *
  67. Erodendrum amplexicaule = Protea amplexicaulis *
  68. Castalia pygmaea = Nymphaea tetragona Georgi
  69. Southwellia nobilis *
  70. Erodendrum tenax *
  71. Claytonia spathulifolia [Claytonia spatulaefolia] = Claytonia caroliniana Michx. var. lewisii McNeill
  72. Begonia nitida = Begonia minor Jacq.
  73. Hibbertia grossulariifolia [Hibbertia grossulariaefolia] * (The drawing has Burtonia, corrected to Hibbertia in the text.)
  74. Leucojum pulchellum [Leucoium pulchellum] = Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. pulchellum (Salisb.) Briq.
  75. Euryspermum salicifolium *
  76. Erodendrum formosum = Protea formosa *
  77. Stylidium glandulosum Salisb.[20]
  78. Paeonia edulis = Paeonia lactiflora Pall.
  79. Linum hypericifolium Salisb.
  80. Rhododendron officinale = Rhododendron aureum Georgi
  81. Ipomoea repanda = Quamoclit repanda (Jacq.) Roberty
  82. Myrobroma fragrans = Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews
  83. Corybas aconitiflorus Salisb.
  84. Pancratium nervifolium = Proiphys amboinensis (L.) Herb.
  85. Prenanthes suavis *
  86. Pancratium tiariflorum [Pancratium tiaraeflorum] = Pancratium zeylanicum L.
  87. Magnolia gracilis = Magnolia liliiflora Desr.
  88. Bouvardia triphylla = Bouvardia ternifolia (Cav.) Schltdl.
  89. Calypso borealis = Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes
  90. Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme *
  91. Jatropha multifida L.
  92. Smithia sensitiva Aiton
  93. Euclinia longiflora Salisb. [Randia longiflora]
  94. Hibiscus tiliifolius [Hibiscus tiliaefolius] = Hibiscus tiliaceus L.
  95. Byblis liniflora Salisb.
  96. Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
  97. Anigozanthos grandiflorus [Anigozanthus grandiflora] = Anigozanthos flavidus DC
  98. Hookera coronaria = Brodiaea coronaria (Salisb.) Jeps.
  99. Cephaëlis peduncularis = Psychotria peduncularis (Salisb.) Steyerm.
  100. Correa cotinifolia = Correa alba Andrews
  101. Rosa simplicifolia = Rosa persica Michx. ex J. F. Gmel.[21]
  102. Abroma fastuosa [Abroma fastuosum] = Abroma augusta (L.) L.f.
  103. Chlamysporum juncifolium = Thysanotus juncifolius (Salisb.) J.H.Willis & Court
  104. Diapensia obtusifolia = Diapensia lapponica L.
  105. Euryspermum grandiflorum = Leucadendron grandiflorum *
  106. Crocus lageniflorus [Crocus lagenaeflorus] = Crocus flavus Weston subsp. flavus
  107. Primula sedifolia = Vitaliana primuliflora Bertol.
  108. Erodendrum turbiniflorum *
  109. Lachnaea glauca = Lachnaea pomposa Beyers
  110. Orchis bracteata [Orchis bractealis] = Dactylorhiza viridis (L.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase var. virescens (Muhl. ex Willd.) ined.
  111. Embothrium speciosum *
  112. Dianthus fragrans M.Bieb.
  113. Salvia bicolor *
  114. Podalyria oleifolia Salisb. [Podalyria oleaefolia]
  115. Adina globiflora = Adina pilulifera (Lam.) Franch. ex Drake
  116. Leucadendron grandiflorum [Leucadendrum grandiflorum] *
  117. Hookera pulchella = Dichelostemma congestum (Sm.) Kunth, or Dichelostemma capitatum (Benth.) Alph.Wood subsp. capitatum[16]

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Frans Antonie Stafleu (1979). Taxonomic Literature: H-Le. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema.
  2. ^ a b "Publication Details: Paradisus Londinensis", The International Plant Names Index, retrieved 2013-09-16
  3. ^ .Richard Anthony Salisbury; William Hooker (1805). The Paradisus Londinensis: Or Coloured Figures of Plants Cultivated in the Vicinity of the Metropolis. D. N. Shury, and published by William Hooker.
  4. ^ a b See the OCLC WorldCat entry 21413996: "Pt. 1 contains 118 leaves of col. plates; pt. 2 contains descriptions of the plates. Pt. 2 has separate t.p.: The paradisus londinensis: containing plants cultivated in the vicinity of the metropolis. The descriptions by Richard Anthony Salisbury, the figures by William Hooker ... vol. 1, pt. 2 ... Printed by D.N. Shury and published by William Hooker. Plates bound at random; some plates dated 1807 or 1808."
  5. ^ See, e.g., the details page of the Biodiversity Heritage Library scan.
  6. ^ "Search for 'Parad. Lond' and 'Salisb.'", The International Plant Names Index, retrieved 2013-09-16
  7. ^ a b c Boulger, George Simonds (1897), "Salisbury, Richard Anthony" , in Lee, Sidney (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, 50, London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  8. ^ Boulger, George Simonds (1898), "Smith, James Edward" , in Lee, Sidney (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, 53, London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  9. ^ The notes to almost every plate begin with the number, the Latin and common name of the plant and then "Ordo Naturalis" followed by the name of the order (now family), "Juss. Gen. p." and the page number in de Jussieu's Genera Plantarum.
  10. ^ Smith, James Edward (1807), An introduction to physiological and systematical botany, p. 261 
  11. ^ Salisbury & Hooker 1805–1808, no. 98
  12. ^ Smith, James Edward (1810). "Characters of a new Liliaceous Genus called Brodiæa" . Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 10: 1–5. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1810.tb00010.x.
  13. ^ Salisbury & Hooker 1805–1808, no. 117
  14. ^ a b Britten, James (1886), "Hookera vs. Brodiaea: with some remarks on nomenclature", Journal of Botany, 24: 49–53, retrieved 2013-09-25
  15. ^ Britten, James (1886), "On the nomenclature of some Proteaceae", Journal of Botany, 24: 296–300, retrieved 2013-09-25
  16. ^ a b "Hookera pulchella Salisb.", Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, retrieved 2013-09-23
  17. ^ In particular, under Article 60.8 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the letters "ae" in epithets like annonaefolia are to be corrected to "i" giving annonifolia.
  18. ^ The Plant List, retrieved 2013-09-21
  19. ^ "Yucca recurvifolia", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-09-21
  20. ^ "Stylidium glandulosum Salisb.", Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2019-08-03
  21. ^ "Rosa simplicifolia". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2013-09-21.

BibliographyEdit

  • Salisbury, R.A. & Hooker, W. (1805–1808), The Paradisus Londonensis : or Coloured Figures of Plants Cultivated in the Vicinity of the Metropolis, London: W. Hooker (printer D.N. Shury), doi:10.5962/bhl.title.53520, OCLC 1864969 (The scan is as a single volume with plates and text interspersed.)