The Hebrides (overture)
Felix Mendelssohn's concert overture The Hebrides (//; German: Die Hebriden) was composed in 1830, revised in 1832, and published the next year as his Op. 26. Some consider it an early tone poem.
|Concert overture by Felix Mendelssohn|
Sketch of a landscape in Scotland by Felix Mendelssohn, in his letter of 1 August 1829 to his sister Fanny
|Dedication||Frederick William IV of Prussia|
It was inspired by one of Mendelssohn's trips to the British Isles, specifically an 1829 excursion to the Scottish island of Staffa, with its basalt sea cave known as Fingal's Cave. It is not known whether Mendelssohn set foot on the island, the cave being best visible from the water, but the composer reported that he immediately jotted down the opening theme for his composition. He at first called the work To the Lonely Island or Zur einsamen Insel, but then settled on the present title. However, in 1834, the year after the first publication, Breitkopf & Härtel issued an edition with the name Fingalshöhle (Fingal's Cave) and this title stuck, causing some confusion.
Being a concert overture, The Hebrides does not precede a play or opera, but is instead a standalone composition in a form common for the Romantic period. Dedicated to King Frederick William IV of Prussia, then Crown Prince of Prussia, the B minor work became part of the standard orchestral repertoire and retains this position to the present day.
Mendelssohn's first visit to England in 1829 resulted from invitations by Sir George Smart and the Philharmonic Society. Following his tour of England, Mendelssohn proceeded to Scotland, where he began work on his Symphony No. 3, Scottish. He was engaged on a tour of Scotland with his travelling companion Karl Klingemann when he sent a postcard to his family with the opening phrase of the overture written on it. In a note to his sister Fanny, he said: "In order to make you understand how extraordinarily the Hebrides affected me, I send you the following, which came into my head there." The cave at that time was approximately 35 feet (11 m) high and over 200 feet (61 m) deep, and contained black basalt pillars.
The work was completed on 16 December 1830 and was originally entitled Die einsame Insel (The Lonely Island). However, Mendelssohn later revised the score and renamed the piece Die Hebriden (The Hebrides). Despite this, the title of Fingal's Cave was also used: on the orchestral parts he labelled the music The Hebrides, but on the score Mendelssohn labelled the music Fingal's Cave. This revision of the overture was premiered on 14 May 1832 in London in a concert conducted by Thomas Attwood, that also featured Mendelssohn's Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream. The final revision was completed by 20 June 1832. and premiered on 10 January 1833 in Berlin under the composer's own baton.
The music, though labelled as an overture, is intended to stand as a complete work. Although programme music, it does not tell a specific story and is not "about" anything; instead, the piece depicts a mood and "sets a scene", making it an early example of such musical tone poems. The overture consists of two primary themes; the opening notes of the overture state the theme Mendelssohn wrote while visiting the cave, and is played initially by the violas, cellos, and bassoons. This lyrical theme, suggestive of the power and stunning beauty of the cave, is intended to develop feelings of loneliness and solitude. The second theme, meanwhile, depicts movement at sea and "rolling waves".
In popular cultureEdit
- The overture can be heard in Luis Buñuel's film L'Age d'Or (1930).
- The full work provides the soundtrack for the 1941 experimental film Moods of the Sea by Slavko Vorkapić and John Hoffman.
- An extract was used for the inscrutable and seemingly indestructible hopping mynah bird in the brief Warner Bros. 1940s cartoon series "Inki and the Minah Bird".
- An a cappella arrangement can be heard in Crash Twinsanity.
- Heard in the 1943 film The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp by Michael Powell.
- The opening 2 minutes of the piece features in the PlayStation video game Colony Wars: Vengeance during selected cutscenes.
- See "Symphonic poem" in the online Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed 2 October 2017.
- See "Symphonic Poem" in the MUS 101 music lesson series by Elliott Jones, accessed 2 October 2017.
- Sir George Smart, Leaves from the Journal of Sir George Smart, London, 1907, p. 64, pp. 207-10.
- See "The Journey North" in Mendelssohn in Scotland website, accessed 9 January 2015.
- David R. Glerum (2006-09-30). "Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra Program Notes" (PDF). pp. 4–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
- Geoff Kuenning. "Program Notes: Mendelssohn: "Hebrides" Overture". Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2006-11-03.
- The Hebrides, digital library of the Mendelssohn Foundation, accessed 22 February 2018
- Dr. Richard E. Rodda. "Program Notes: Overture, "The Hebrides" ("Fingal's Cave"), Op. 26". Hartford Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 2006-11-03.
- "Overture to "Fingal's Cave"". Music With Ease. Retrieved 2006-11-03.
- Wojcik, Pamela Robertson and Knight, Arthur (eds.) (2001) . Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music, p. 46. Duke University Press
- Goldmark, Daniel and Taylor, Yuval (eds.) (2002). The Cartoon Music Book, p. 54. Chicago Review Press