The Battle of Alcazar
The Battle of Alcazar is a play attributed to George Peele, perhaps written no later than late 1591 if the play "Muly Molucco" mentioned in Henslowe's diary is this play (see below), and published anonymously in 1594, that tells the story of the battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.
Likely allusions to the Spanish Armada in the play appear to limit its earliest possible date. The primary historical source for the play, John Polemom's The Second Part of the Book of Battles, Fought in Our Age, was published in 1587. The play may also have been an attempt to capitalise on popular interest in the Drake-Norris Expedition, the so-called English Armada, of 1589, in which Peele was interested (see below).
Characters (dramatis personae)Edit
The Presenter, a Chorus
Abdelmelec – also known as Muly Molocco, rightful King of Morocco, uncle to the Moor
Abdil Rayes – his Queen
Calsepius Basssa – general of the Turkish troops supporting Abdelmelec
Argerd Zareo – a Moor of Argier, follower of Abdelmelec
Celybin – a captain in Abdelmelec's army
Muly Mahamet Seth – brother to Abdelmelec
Rubin Archis – widow of Abdelmelec's brother, Abdelmunen
Rubin's Young Son
Muly Mahamet – the Moor, nephew to Abdelmelec
Calypolis – Muly Mahamet's wife
Muly Mahamet's son (also named Muly Mahamet)
Pisano, Muly Mahamet's Captain
Diego Lopis, governor of Lisbon
Jonas and Hercules, captains in Stukely's service
An Irish Bishop
Sebastian, king of Portugal
The Duke of Avero
The Duke of Barceles
Lewes de Sylva
Christopher de Tavera
Don de Menysis, governor of Tangier
Lord Lodowicke Caesar
A boy serving Muly Mahamet
Ambassadors from Muly Mahamet to the King of Portugal
Rubin's young son
Two young brothers of the Moor
Abdelmunen, uncle to the Moor
History of the playEdit
Lord Strange's Men acted a play called Muly Molloco 14 times between 21 February 1592 and 20 January 1593; this is generally thought to be The Battle of Alcazar under an alternative title (no other play about "Muly Molucco" is known from this era, and one of the characters in the play refers to another as "Muly Molucco"). A later revival of the play was staged by the Admiral's Men, either in 1598 or 1600–02. The 1594 quarto was printed by Edward Allde for the bookseller Richard Bankworth. The play was published anonymously, though the attribution to Peele rests on both internal stylistic evidence and an assignment of authorship of a quoted passage in the anthology England's Parnassus (1600). The Parnassus attribution is questionable as the person making the attribution is known to have erred in the attribution of authorship elsewhere. The surviving edition is significantly truncated.
The Battle of Alcazar is a five-act non-fiction play that tells the story of the battle. Like Shakespeare's Henry V (1599), it is narrated by a Chorus who describes the action in terms far more heroic than it warrants: King Sebastian of Portugal is referred to as "an honourable and courageous prince", but is in fact shown to be foolish in invading Morocco, having been duped by Mulai Mohammed, who is presented as a Machiavellian villain.
The enemy, led by "Muly Mahamet" (Abd al-Malik), are depicted sympathetically. The play's portrayal of the Moroccan leader has been singled out as "the first full dramatic treatment of a black Moor on the English Stage...." (Peele's orientation can be understood as anti-Spanish, and rather pro-Moroccan, within the historical context of contemporary attempts at an Anglo-Moroccan alliance between Elizabeth I of England and the Moroccan Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur.)
The primary protagonist in the play is Thomas Stukeley, presented as a larger-than-life figure driven by ambition: he is given a soliloquy on his desire to be a king which very probably influenced Shakespeare in writing the Duke of Gloucester's similar speech in Henry VI, Part 3. Peele may have chosen to treat Stukeley as he does in an attempt to create a hero compable to Marlowe's Tamburlaine, which was the great theatrical success of the late 1580s. (Peele wrote a poem,"A Farewell to Norris and Drake," in which he links Stukeley and Tamburlaine: "proud tragedians...mighty Tamburlaine,/ King Charlemagne, Tom Stukeley....")
Critics contend that the primary protagonist is determined by the reader's socio-political predilection. Thus, one might argue that Sebastian or Philip are alternative protagonists due to their significant religious and political involvement in the text. However, Abdelmelec (a fair skinned Moor) and his usurping nephew Muly Mahamet (a dark skinned Moor) are regularly recognised as central to the racial discourse that Alcazar is fundamentally concerned with. Sebastian is the play's largest role.
Compared to Shakespeare's Othello, a later early modern play, Alcazar does not contain many explicit references to racial difference. This can be seen as a refining of the shades of racial difference in the early modern period. Whereas Muly Mahamet is defined by vague racial stereotypes in keeping with early modern racial ideology, Othello's racial difference is solely defined (radicalised by a treacherous Iago) by the colour of his skin, and many characters in the later play exhibit their own racial stereotypes through their astonishment at Othello's contradicting them.
The "plot" or plan for the Admiral's Men's production still exists, as MS. Add. 10,449, fol. 3, in the collection of the British Museum. Though damaged, the plot reveals most of the cast of the production, which included Edward Alleyn and Samuel Rowley among other members of the company. In comparing the plot to the play, W. W. Greg determined that the plot requires a larger cast than the printed version of the play does; he argued that the printed text was cut down from its original length to accommodate a smaller-scale production. Other scholars agree that the 1594 text was shortened, though the reason for that shortening has been disputed.
Peele was not the only English playwright to dramatise the story of Sebastian. A lost play, Sebastian, King of Portugal, was performed by the Admiral's Men in 1601. Massinger's Believe as You List (1631) was originally about Sebastian; Massinger shifted the play's setting to ancient Greece after the first version was suppressed. In the Restoration era, John Dryden wrote Don Sebastian (1689) on the same subject.
The Moor’s uncle and his two young brothers are smothered in bed in a narrated dumb show meant to display his cruelty, tyranny, and ambition. Abdelmelec, Calcepius Bassa, Seth, and Abdil Rays celebrate a victory. They plan their next move to get Abdelemec onto the throne of Barbary. The Moor and his son discuss the movements of their enemies and their plans for success. A messenger arrives and tells them to flee; Abdelemec has conquered the territory. They depart.
The chorus tells us Abdelemec has been installed as king. Abdelemec names Seth as his heir. An English, Christian contingent lands at Lisbon and talks about suppressing Irish rebels and returning Ireland to the Catholic faith. Stukley expresses his ambitions to be king of Ireland. The Moor complains about his exile to his wife, who counsels patience. The Moor leaves and his son tells mom not to stifle the Moor’s warlike tendencies. The Moor makes a deal with the king of Portugal for submission and protection, but this will end in either Portugal’s death or the Moor’s. The Moor kills a lioness and everyone is heartened. Portugal agrees to help the Moor in exchange for the Moor relinquishing Morocco to Portugal. Portugal presses the English contingent into service to help the Moor in Barbary.
The king of Spain sends legates to Portugal to promise lands and his daughter’s hand in marriage in trade for arms. Abdelemec is confident Spain will help him, no matter the promises made to Portugal. Portugal welcomes the Moor in honor. The Moor thanks Portugal. The Moor’s son thanks Portugal. Portugal takes the Moor’s son as ward/honored guest.
In a dumb show, Portugal, the Moor, the Duke of Avero, and Stukley are greeted by Death at a bloody banquet. Abdelemec prepares for battle at Alcazar. Portugal prepares for battle; the Moor rouses the troops to fight and then damns Portugal in a soliloquy.
Zareo tells Abdelemec how their troops were overcome and Abdelemec dies of grief. Seth brings news that the tide of battle has turned, and so as not to shock the army with grief over the news of Abdelemec’s death and therefore lose the day, Seth and Zareo Weekend-At-Bernie’s Abdelemec’s body. The Duke of Avero is slain in battle. Stukley and Portugal run away scared. The Moor calls for a horse, curses Abdelemec, and retreats. Two Italians corner Stukley and kill him. The battle is over and Abdelemec’s army has won. Portugal’s slain body is brought in. The Moor’s body is brought in. Seth orders proper burials for all three dead leaders.
- The quarto gives the full title of the play as The Battell of Alcazar, fought in Barbarie, between Sebastian king of Portugal, and Abdelmelec king of Marocco.
- Chambers, Vol. 3, pp. 459–60.
- Edelman, p. 16.
- George Peele. The Battle of Alcazar. ed. John Yoklavich. Yale University Press, 1961.
- Logan and Smith, p. 146. See also: Eldred Jones, Othello's Countrymen: The African in English Renaissance Drama, London, Oxford University Press, 1965.
- George Peele. The Battle of Alcazar. ed. John Yoklavich. Yale University Press, 1961, 237.
- In Elizabethan theatre, the "plot" was a chart that hung backstage in the theatre, to which the actors could refer.
- Chambers, Vol. 2, p. 175.
- W. W. Greg, Two Elizabethan Stage Abridgements: "The Battle of Alcazar" and "Orlando Furioso," Malone Society, 1922.
- Bernard Beckerman, "Theatrical Plots and Elizabethan Stage Practice," in Long and Elton, pp. 109–24.
- Edelman, Charles, ed. The Stukeley Plays: The Battle of Alcazar by George Peele, The Famous History of the Life and Death of Captain Thomas Stukeley. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2005.
- Critical edition of the play with a modernised text, part of The Revels Plays Companion Library series.
- Chambers. E. K. The Elizabethan Stage. 4 Volumes, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1923.
- Logan, Terence P., and Denzell S. Smith, eds. The Predecessors of Shakespeare: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
- Long, William B., and William R. Elton. Shakespeare and Dramatic Tradition. Newark, DE, University of Delaware Press, 1989.
- Previsualization of Charles Edelman's critical edition of the play at google books
- The Battle of Alcazar in The Works of George Peele: David and Bethsabe. Battle of Alcazar. Device of the pageant borne before Woolstone Dixi. Descensus Astrææ. A farewell to Sir John Norris and Sir Francis Drake, &c., and a Tale of Troy. Polyhymnia. The honour of the Garter. Miscellaneous poems. Peele's Merry conceited jests. Index to the notes, Volume 2 of The Works of George Peele, collected and edited by Alexander Dyce, 2nd edition, W. Pickering, 1829, Harvard University