Taspar Qaghan

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Taspar Qaghan[1] or Tatpar Qaghan (Old Turkic: 𐱃𐱃𐰯𐰺𐰴𐰍𐰣 Tatpar qaγan,[2][3] 佗缽可汗/佗钵可汗, Pinyin: tuóbō kěhàn, Wade-Giles: t'o-po k'o-han) was the third son of Bumin Qaghan and Wei Changle (長樂公主), and the fourth khagan of the Turkic Khaganate (572–581).[4]

Taspar Qaghan
𐱃𐱃𐰯𐰺𐰴𐰍𐰣
佗缽可汗
Fourth Qaghan of the Turkic Khaganate
Reign572 – 581
PredecessorMuqan Qaghan
SuccessorAmrak
Died581
SpousePrincess Qianjin (大义公主)
IssueAmrak
HouseAshina
FatherBumin Qaghan
ReligionBuddhism

ReignEdit

His reign saw further rise of Turkic power even to the point calling both Zhou and Qi emperors as his sons.[5][6] He appointed his nephews Ashina Shetu as Erzhu khagan to east and Börü khagan to west as lesser khagans.[6]

He switched his alliance from Zhou to Qi. Sent a horse as gift in 572 and granted defeated Qi prince Gao Shaoyi asylum. He transferred the former Northern Qi subjects, whether they fled to or were captured to Tujue, to be under Gao Shaoyi's command. However, he still maintained good relationship with Zhou, sending another horse as gift in 574.[6]

Around the new year 578, Gao Baoning, sent a petition to Gao Shaoyi, requesting that he take imperial title. Gao Shaoyi therefore declared himself emperor, with military assistance from Tujue.

Taspar attacked Zhou repeatedly until spring 579, when he sought peace with Northern Zhou. Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou created the daughter of his uncle Yuwen Zhao (宇文招) the Princess Qianjin, offering to give her to Taspar in marriage if khagan would be willing to surrender Gao Shaoyi. Khagan refused.

In 580, after Emperor Xuan's death, Yang Jian, the regent for Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, nevertheless sent Princess Qianjin to Tujue to marry Tuobo Khan. After the marriage, Yang then sent the official Heruo Yi (賀若誼) to Tujue to bribe khagan to give up Gao Shaoyi. Khagan agreed, and as a ruse, he invited Gao Shaoyi to a hunt, but instead had Heruo Yi capture Gao Shaoyi. In fall 580, Gao Shaoyi was delivered to Northern Zhou's capital Chang'an, and he was exiled to modern Sichuan.

Taspar died in 581 from illness, leaving throne to his nephew Talopien.

LegacyEdit

Unlike his father and older brothers he embraced Chinese culture, especially Buddhism. He was converted to Buddhism[7][8] by the Qi monk Huilin, for whom he built a pagoda. Taspar's death marked the beginning of a long decline and subjugation of the Göktürks to China. During his reign there was a veitable flood of Sogdian Manichean refugees from Persia and Buddhist Refugees from Qi and Zhou, both the result of pogroms. These Sogdians devised the Göktürk Runes to write the Turkic language, for translations of the sutras to Turkic, notably the Nirvana Sutra in 575[6].

SuccessionEdit

Taspar's death created a dynastic crisis in the khaganate. His Chinese wife Qianjin survived him, but Taspar bequeathed the throne of the Empire to Talopien, the son of his elder brother Muqan Qaghan. His bequest ran contrary to the traditional system of inheritance which demanded the throne to be passed to the son of the eldest brother, in this case Ishbara Qaghan. The council rejected the legality of Taspar's will stating his mother's non-Turkic origin. Thus appointed Amrak as the next khagan. Talopien's faction did not recognize Amrak. This crisis ultimately resulted in the civil war of 581-603, which greatly weakened the state.

FamilyEdit

He had at least two issues:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gary Seaman, Daniel Marksm, Rulers from the steppe: state formation on the Eurasian periphery, Ethnographics Press, Center for Visual Anthropology, University of Southern California, 1991, ISBN 978-1-878986-01-6, p. 97, 100.
  2. ^ Ethno Cultural Dictionary, TÜRIK BITIG
  3. ^ 布古特所出粟特文突厥可汗纪功碑考_百度文库
  4. ^ Jean Deny; Louis Bazin; Hans Robert Roemer; György Hazai; Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp (2000). History of the Turkic Peoples in the Pre-Islamic Period. Schwarz. p. 108. ISBN 9783879972838.
  5. ^ Book of Zhou, Volume 50
  6. ^ a b c d Ahmet., Taşağil (1995–2004). Gök-Türkler. Atatürk Kültür, Dil, ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu (Turkey). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. ISBN 975161113X. OCLC 33892575.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  7. ^ Findley, Carter V. (2005). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press US. p. 48. ISBN 0-19-517726-6.
  8. ^ Michael Adas (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-56639-832-9.
  9. ^ Suzuki, Kosetsu. "On the Genealogical Line of Türks' Ashina Simo: The Royal Genealogy of the First Türkic Qaγanate and the Ordos Region during the Tang Period" (PDF). The Toyo Gakuho. Retrieved 2018-07-28.
Taspar Qaghan
Preceded by
Muqan Qaghan
Khagan of the Turkic Khaganate
572–581
Succeeded by
Amrak