Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد), also known simply as Tarik in English, was a Berber commander who served the Umayyad Caliphate and initiated the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania (present-day Spain and Portugal) in 711–718 AD. He led an army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar. The name "Gibraltar" is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Ṭāriq", which is named after him.
Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād
طارق بن زياد
|Born||c. 670 CE|
|Died||c. 720 (aged 49–50)|
|Battles/wars||Conquest of Hispania|
• Battle of Guadalete
|Other work||Governor of Tangier|
Governor of Al-Andalus
Medieval Arabic historians give contradictory data about Ṭāriq's origins and nationality. Some conclusions about his personality and the circumstances of his entry into al-Andalus are surrounded by uncertainty. The vast majority of modern sources state that Ṭāriq was a Berber mawla of Musa ibn Nusayr, the Umayyad governor of Ifriqiya. He is traditionally said to have been born in the Tlemcen region; he had also lived there with his wife prior to his governance of Tangier. Tariq Ibn Ziyad, was a berber from the tribe of the Ulhassa, a tribe native to the Tafna and currently inhabits the Béni Saf region in Algeria.
According to Ibn Abd al-Hakam (803–871), Musa ibn Nusayr appointed Ṭāriq governor of Tangier after its conquest in 710-711 but an unconquered Visigothic outpost remained nearby at Ceuta, a stronghold commanded by a nobleman named Julian, Count of Ceuta.
After Roderic came to power in Spain, Julian had, as was the custom, sent his daughter, Florinda la Cava, to the court of the Visigothic king for education. It is said that Roderic raped her, and that Julian was so incensed he resolved to have the Muslims bring down the Visigothic Kingdom. Accordingly, he entered into a treaty with Ṭāriq (Mūsā having returned to Qayrawan) to secretly convoy the Muslim army across the Straits of Gibraltar, as he owned a number of merchant ships and had his own forts on the Spanish mainland.
On or about April 26, 711, the army of Ṭāriq Bin Ziyad, composed of recent Berber converts to Islam, was landed on the Iberian peninsula (in what is now Spain) by Julian.[a] They debarked at the foothills of a mountain which was henceforth named after him, Gibraltar (Jabal Tariq).
Ṭāriq's army contained about 7,000 soldiers, composed largely of Berber stock but also Arab troops. Roderic, to meet the threat of the Umayyads, assembled an army said to number 100,000, though the real number may well have been much lower. Most of the army was commanded by, and loyal to, the sons of Wittiza, whom Roderic had brutally deposed. Ṭāriq won a decisive victory when Roderic was defeated and killed on July 19 at the Battle of Guadalete.
Ṭāriq Bin Ziyad split his army into four divisions, which went on to capture Córdoba under Mughith al-Rumi, Granada, and other places, while he remained at the head of the division which captured Toledo. Afterwards, he continued advancing towards the north, reaching Guadalajara and Astorga. Ṭāriq was de facto governor of Hispania until the arrival of Mūsā a year later. Ṭāriq's success led Musa to assemble 12,000 (mostly Arab) troops to plan a second invasion, and within a few years Ṭāriq and Musa had captured two-thirds of the Iberian peninsula from the Visigoths.
Both Ṭāriq and Musa were simultaneously ordered back to Damascus by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in 714, where they spent the rest of their lives. The son of Musa, Abd al-Aziz, who took command of the troops of al-Andalus, was assassinated in 716. In the many Arabic histories written about the conquest of southern Spain, there is a definite division of opinion regarding the relationship between Ṭāriq and Musa bin Nusayr. Some relate episodes of anger and envy on the part of Mūsā that his freedman had conquered an entire country. Others do not mention, or play down, any such bad blood. On the other hand, another early historian, al-Baladhuri, writing in the 9th century, merely states that Mūsā wrote Ṭāriq a "severe letter" and that the two were later reconciled.
The 16th-century historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari, in his The Breath of Perfume, attributes a long speech by Ṭāriq to his troops before the Battle of Guadalete.
- ^ There is a legend that Ṭāriq ordered that the ships he arrived in be burnt, to prevent any cowardice. This is first mentioned over 400 years later by the geographer al-Idrisi, fasc. 5 p. 540 of Arabic text (Arabic: فٱمر بإحراق المراكب), vol. 2 p. 18 of French translation. Apart from a mention in the slightly later Kitāb al-iktifa fī akhbār al-khulafā (English translation in Appendix D of Gayangos, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain), this legend was not sustained by other authors.
- ^ a b c d Molina 2000, p. 242.
- ^ a b Abun-Nasr 1993, p. 71.
- ^ Kennedy 1996, p. 6.
- ^ Nicolle 2009, p. 64.
- ^ Nicolle, David. The Great Islamic Conquests AD 632–750. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014.
- ^ الأدب العربي لغير الناطقين بالعربية. الجزء الأول. Al Manhal, 2014.
- ^ Shākir, Maḥmūd. موسوعة اعلام وقادة الفتح الاسلامي. دار أسامة للنشر والتوزيع, 2002.
- ^ Barth, Heinrich (1857). Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa: Being a Journal of an Expedition Undertaken Under the Auspices of H.B.M.'s Government, in the Years 1849–1855. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts.
- ^ Sidi Yakhlef, Adel. "Approche Anthropo-biologique de la consanguinité sur les paramètres de fitness et de morbidité dans la population de Oulhaça dans l’Ouest Algérien." PhD diss., 2012.
- ^ Khelifa, Abderrahmane. "Oulhassa (Tribu)." Encyclopédie berbère 36 (2013): 5975–5977.
- ^ Alternatively, he was left as governor when Mūsā's son Marwan returned to Qayrawan. Both explanations are given by Ibn Abd al-Hakam, p. 41 of Spanish translation, p. 204 of Arabic text.
- ^ Menon, Ajay (2021-04-17). "10 Interesting Facts About The Straits Of Gibraltar". Marine Insight. Retrieved 2023-01-12.
- ^ Molina 2000, p. 243.
- ^ Akhbār majmūa, p. 21 of Spanish translation, p. 6 of Arabic text.
- ^ Akhbār majmūa p. 8 of Arabic text, p. 22 of Spanish translation.
- ^ Collins, Roger (2004). Visigothic Spain 409–711. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. p. 141. ISBN 9781405149662.
- ^ According to some sources, e.g., al-Maqqari p. 269 of the English translation, Wittiza's sons by prior arrangement with Ṭāriq deserted at a critical phase of the battle. Roger Collins takes an oblique reference in the Mozarab Chronicle par. 52 to mean the same thing.
- ^ a b Reilly 2009, p. 52.
- ^ Rogers, Clifford J. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6.
- ^ Esposito, John L. (2000-04-06). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-988041-6.
- ^ p. 365 of Hitti's English translation.
- ^ Falk, Avner (2010). Franks and Saracens: Reality and Fantasy in the Crusades. p. 47.
- ^ McIntire, E. Burns, Suzanne, William (2009). Speeches in World History. p. 85.
- ^ Charles Francis Horne (1917). The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East: With Historical Surveys of the Chief Writings of Each Nation... Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia. Parke, Austin, and Lipscomb. pp. 241–242.
- Pascual de Gayangos y Arce, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain. vol. 1. 1840. English translation of al-Maqqari.
- al-Baladhuri, Kitab Futuh al-Buldan, English translation by Phillip Hitti in The Origins of, the Islamic State (1916, 1924).
- Anon., Akhbār majmūa fī fath al-andalūs wa dhikr ūmarā'ihā. Arabic text edited with Spanish translation: E. Lafuente y Alcantara, Ajbar Machmua, Coleccion de Obras Arabigas de Historia y Geografia, vol. 1, Madrid, 1867.
- Anon., Mozarab Chronicle.
- Ibn Abd al-Hakam, Kitab Futuh Misr wa'l Maghrib wa'l Andalus. Critical Arabic edition of the whole work published by Torrey, Yale University Press, 1932. Spanish translation by Eliseo Vidal Beltran of the North African and Spanish parts of Torrey's Arabic text: "Conquista de Africa del Norte y de Espana", Textos Medievales #17, Valencia, 1966. This is to be preferred to the obsolete 19th-century English translation at: Medieval Sourcebook: The Islamic conquest of Spain
- Enrique Gozalbes Cravioto, "Tarif, el conquistador de Tarifa", Aljaranda, no. 30 (1998) (not paginated).
- Muhammad al-Idrisi, Kitab nuzhat al-mushtaq (1154). Critical edition of the Arabic text: Opus geographicum: sive "Liber ad eorum delectationem qui terras peragrare studeant." (ed. Bombaci, A. et al., 9 Fascicles, 1970–1978). Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples. French translation: Jaubert, P. Amédée, trans. & ed. (1836–1840). Géographie d'Édrisi traduite de l'arabe en français d'après deux manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du roi et accompagnée de notes (2 Vols). Paris: L'imprimerie Royale.
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- Ibn Taghribirdi, Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa'l-Qahira. Partial French translation by E. Fagnan, "En-Nodjoum ez-Zâhîra. Extraits relatifs au Maghreb." Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du Département de Constantine, v. 40, 1907, 269–382.
- Ibn Khallikan, Wafayāt al-aʿyān wa-anbāʾ abnāʾ az-zamān. English translation by M. De Slane, Ibn Khallikan's Biographical dictionary, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1843.
- Ibn Idhari, Kitāb al-bayān al-mughrib fī ākhbār mulūk al-andalus wa'l-maghrib. Arabic text ed. G.S. Colin & E. Lévi-Provençal, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord et de l'Espagne intitulée Kitāb al-Bayān al-Mughrib, 1948.
- Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. (1993). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521337670.
- Collins, Roger (1995) . The Arab Conquest of Spain: 710 - 797. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-631-19405-7.
- Djait, Hichem (2008). تأسيس الغرب الإسلامي (in Arabic) (2nd ed.). Beirut: دار الطليعة. ISBN 978-9953410876.
- Ivan Van Sertima (1992). Golden Age of the Moor. ISBN 9781412815369. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Kennedy, Hugh (1996). Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. Routledge. ISBN 9781317870418.
- Molina, L. (2000). "Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. & Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Volume X: T–U. Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11211-7.
- Nicolle, David (2009). The Great Islamic Conquests AD 632–750. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781846032738.
- Reilly, Bernard F. (2009). The Medieval Spains. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39741-4.
- Pascual de Gayangos y Arce, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain. vol. 1. 1840. Authoritative English translation of al-Maqqari available from Google eBooks. This is the translation still cited by modern historians.
- Tarik's Address to His Soldiers, 711 CE, from The Breath of Perfumes. A translation of al-Maqqari's work included in Charles F. Horne, The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, (New York: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, 1917), Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, pp. 241–242. Horne was the editor, the translator is not identified. NB: the online extract, often cited, does not include the warning on p. 238 (download the whole book from other sites): "This speech does not, however, preserve the actual words of Tarik; it only presents the tradition of them as preserved by the Moorish historian Al Maggari, who wrote in Africa long after the last of the Moors had been driven out of Spain. In Al Maggari's day the older Arabic traditions of exact service had quite faded. The Moors had become poets and dreamers instead of scientists and critical historians."
- Ibn Abd al-Hakam, rather outdated English translation in Medieval Sourcebook: The Islamic Conquest of Spain