TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses, mainly aerospace, automotive, and credit reporting. It was a pioneer in multiple fields including electronic components, integrated circuits, computers, software and systems engineering. TRW built many spacecraft, including Pioneer 1, Pioneer 10, and several space-based observatories. It was #57 on the 1986 Fortune 500 list, and had 122,258 employees. In 1958 the company was called Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, after three prominent leaders. This was later shortened to TRW.
|Industry||Automotive and aerospace|
|Successor||TRW Automotive, Northrop Grumman and Goodrich Corporation|
|Headquarters||Euclid, Ohio / Lyndhurst, Ohio, United States|
|Simon Ramo, Dean Wooldridge|
|Products||Automotive, aerospace and credit reporting|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||CAV, Girling, LucasVarity Automotive & Lucas Aerospace|
The company's roots were founded in 1901, and it lasted for more than a century until being acquired by Northrop Grumman in 2002. It helped create a variety of corporations, including Pacific Semiconductors, the Aerospace Corporation, Bunker-Ramo, Experian, and TRW Automotive which is now part of ZF Friedrichshafen. People coming from TRW were important to building up corporations like SpaceX.
In 1953, the company was recruited to lead the development of the United States' first ICBM. Starting with the initial design by Convair, the multi-corporate team launched Atlas in 1957. It flew its full range in 1958, and was adapted to fly the Mercury astronauts into orbit. TRW also led development of the Titan missile, which was later adapted to fly the Gemini missions. The company served the US Air Force as systems engineers on all subsequent ICBM development efforts, but TRW never produced any missile hardware because of the conflict of interest. In 1960, Congress spurred the formation of the non-profit Aerospace Corporation to provide systems engineering to the US government, but TRW continued to guide the ICBM efforts.
TRW originated in 1901 with the Cleveland Cap Screw Company, founded by David Kurtz and four other Cleveland residents. Their initial products were bolts with heads electrically welded to the shafts. In 1904, a welder named Charles E. Thompson adapted their process to making automobile engine valves, and, by 1915, the company was the largest valve producer in the United States. Charles Thompson was named general manager of the company, which became Thompson Products in 1926. Their experimental hollow sodium-cooled valves aided Charles Lindbergh's solo flight across the Atlantic.
In 1937, Thompson Motor Products bought J.A. Drake and Sons (JADSON). The company made high-performance valves that were used in many racing engines of the day, including the Miller Offy. Dale Drake (son of J.A. Drake) bought the Offy engine design with his partner Louis Meyer in 1946 and won the Indianapolis 500 twenty-seven times, more than any other engine design.
During the period leading up to World War II, through the end of the Korean war, Thompson Products was a key manufacturer of component parts for aircraft engines, including aircraft valves. The TAPCO plant, owned by the US government but operated by Thompson Products, extended for almost a mile along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. It employed over 16,000 workers at the peak of WW II production. As jet aircraft replaced piston-engined aircraft, Thompson Products became a major manufacturer of turbine blades for jet engines
In 1950, Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge while working for Hughes Aircraft, led the development of the Falcon radar-guided missile, among other projects. They grew frustrated with Howard Hughes' management, and formed the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation in September 1953, with the financial support of Thompson Products. The detonation of a thermonuclear bomb by the Soviet Union spurred Trevor Gardner to form the Teapot Committee in October 1953. Chaired by John von Neumann, its purpose was to study the development of ballistic missiles, including ICBMs. Ramo and Wooldridge were committee members, and Ramo-Wooldridge Corp. became the lead contractor of the resulting ICBM development effort, reporting to the United States Air Force.
With continued backing from Thompson Products, Ramo-Wooldridge diversified into computers and electronic components, founding Pacific Semiconductors in 1954. They also produced scientific spacecraft such as Pioneer 1. Thompson Products and Ramo-Wooldridge merged in October 1958 to form Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc., unofficially known as "TRW". In February 1959, Jimmy Doolittle became Chairman of the Board of Space Technology Laboratories (STL), the division which continued to support the Air Force ICBM efforts.
Other aerospace companies challenged that TRW's Air Force advisory role granted it unfair access to its competitors' technology, and in September 1959 the United States Congress issued a report recommending that STL be converted to a non-profit organization. With nearly half of STL's employees, The Aerospace Corporation was formed in June 1960, which headed the Atlas conversion for Mercury, Titan conversion for Gemini, and provides ongoing systems engineering support for the United States government. The Air Force continued its ICBM work with TRW.
Dean Wooldridge retired in January 1962 to become a professor at California Institute of Technology. Simon Ramo became President of the Bunker-Ramo Corp in January 1964, a company jointly owned by TRW and Martin Marietta for the production of computers and computer monitors. Thompson Ramo Wooldridge officially became TRW Inc. in July 1965. Free of anti-competitive restrictions except regarding ICBM hardware, STL was renamed TRW Systems Group, also in July 1965. In 1968, the company entered the credit reporting industry by purchasing Credit Data Corporation and renaming it TRW Information Systems and Services Inc., a subsidiary of the company. The Credit Data group was formed in 1970 to compete with Dun & Bradstreet, from the combination of TRWISS and ESL, acquired in 1978, specializing in technical strategic reconnaissance. TRW Information Systems and Services Division (Credit Data) was spun off in 1996 to form Experian. TRW acquired LucasVarity in 1999, then sold Lucas Diesel Systems to Delphi Automotive, and Lucas Aerospace (then called TRW Aeronautical Systems) to Goodrich Corporation.
On February 3, 1986, the large TRW plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania burned to the ground in an eight-alarm fire. The plant stored large amounts of dangerous chemicals, and people in the local area were urged to stay indoors. The damage was estimated to be greater than $10 million, and it was the most serious fire in Harrisburg history at the time.
In February 2002 Northrop Grumman launched a $5.9 billion hostile bid for TRW. A bidding war between Northrop Grumman, BAE Systems and General Dynamics ended on July 1, 2002, when Northrop's increased bid of $7.8 billion was accepted. Soon afterward, the automotive assets of LucasVarity and TRW's own automotive group were sold to The Blackstone Group as TRW Automotive.
Much of TRW's Lyndhurst campus is now home to the Cleveland Clinic Wellness Center.
Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, says that he got "his first big break" when only 15, debugging energy-grid control software for TRW. "It was kind of scary," Gates said, realizing the things the program was going to help operate. "This thing needs to work."
TRW Inc. was active in the development of missile systems and spacecraft, notably, the early development of the U.S. ICBM program under the leadership of the Teapot Committee led by John von Neumann. TRW pioneered systems engineering, and created the ubiquitous N2 chart and the modern functional flow block diagram. They served as the primary source of systems engineering for the United States Air Force ballistic missile programs.
Space Technology Laboratories (STL), then a division of Ramo-Wooldridge Corp., designed and produced the identical payloads for Pioneer 0, 1 and 2. These were intended to orbit and photograph the Moon, but launch vehicle problems prevented this. NASA launched Pioneer 1 as its first spacecraft on October 11, 1958. It set a distance record from Earth, and provided data on the extent of Earth's radiation belts.
Pioneer 10 and 11 were nearly identical spacecraft, designed and fabricated by TRW Systems Group. They were optimized for ruggedness since they were the first man-made objects to pass through the asteroid belt and Jupiter's radiation belt. Simplicity, redundancy, and use of proven components were essential. As NASA's first all-atomic powered spacecraft, these used plutonium-238 units developed by Teledyne Isotopes. Pioneer 10 carried 11 instruments, and Pioneer 11 carried 12, for investigating Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Data was transmitted back to Earth at 8 Watts, 128 byte/s at Jupiter, and 1 byte/s from further out. Pioneer 10 was the first man-made object past the planetary orbits, and its last telemetry was received in 2002, 30 years after launch.
TRW Systems Group designed and built the instrument package which performed the Martian biological experiments, searching for life aboard the two Viking Landers launched in 1975. The 34 lb (15.5 kg) system performed four experiments on Martian soil using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and a combined biological instrument.
TRW designed and built the following space observatories:
- HEAO 1, 2, and 3, with HEAO 2 being the Einstein Observatory, the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space
- Compton Gamma Ray Observatory which is the second of four among NASA's Great Observatories program
- Chandra X-ray Observatory is the third of NASA's Great Observatories
The teams developing the following observatories continued their work as part of Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems:
- SIM Lite space telescope which would have searched for Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones around nearby stars (project cancelled)
- James Webb Space Telescope which will be the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope
TRW Systems Group designed and manufactured the Vela series of nuclear detection satellites which monitored the 1963 establishment of the nuclear Partial Test Ban Treaty. Subsequently, they produced the Advanced Vela series, first launched in 1967, which could detect nuclear air bursts using instruments actually called bhangmeters. It had the first dual-spin attitude control system with the total system momentum controlled to zero. The Vela and Advanced Vela satellites were the first to alert astronomers to the presence of gamma-ray bursts. They also reported a mysterious apparent nuclear test now called the Vela Incident.
First launched in 1970, the company built all 23 reconnaissance satellites in the Defense Support Program (DSP), which are the principal components of the Satellite Early Warning System currently used by the United States. These are operated by the Air Force Space Command, and they detect missile or spacecraft launches and nuclear explosions using sensors that detect the infrared emissions from these intense sources of heat. During Desert Storm, for example, DSP satellites were able to detect the launches of Iraqi Scud missiles and provide timely warnings to civilians and military forces in Israel and Saudi Arabia.
The initial seven Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) were built by TRW to improve communication coverage for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, and US military satellites. When first launched in 1983, the TDRS satellites were the largest, most sophisticated communications satellites built at the time. The seventh vehicle in the series was ordered as a replacement when TDRS-2 was lost in the Challenger accident.
Launched in 2002, TRW produced the Aqua spacecraft based on their modular standardized satellite bus. A joint project of the United States, Japan, and Brazil, Aqua delivers 750 Gigabytes per day detailing the Earth's water cycle in the oceans, lakes, atmosphere, polar ice caps, and vegetation.
TRW designed and built the descent engine or (LMDE) for the Apollo lunar lander. Due to the need for a soft landing on the Moon, it was the first throttleable engine for manned space flight. This, and the requirements for high thrust, low weight, and crushability (in case of landing on a large rock), earned surprising praise from NASA's history pages, considering the complexity of the lunar missions: "The lunar module descent engine probably was the biggest challenge and the most outstanding technical development of Apollo". This engine was used on Apollo 13 to achieve free return trajectory and make a minor course correction after damage to the Service Module.
After the Apollo program moon landings, the LMDE was further developed into the TRW TR-201 engine. This engine was used in the second stage Delta-P of the Delta launch vehicle for 77 launches between 1972-1988.
Semiconductors and computersEdit
The Ramo-Wooldridge Corp formed Pacific Semiconductors in June 1954, under the leadership of Harper North who had been head of electronics R+D at Hughes Aircraft. The funding for this endeavor from Thompson Products was about ten times their initial investment in Ramo-Wooldridge. The original goal was to produce the recently invented transistor for commercial sales.
In 1957, Howard Sachar and Sanford "Sandy" Barnes invented the Varicap electronic component (also known as the varactor diode) at Pacific Semiconductors. This device reduced the physical size of radio tuners and eliminated the need for moving mechanical parts. This simplified the implementation of remote control TV tuners. Sachar and Barnes were awarded an Emmy in 2007.
The company manufactured the RW-300 for sales in 1959, one of the first "all-transistor" computers with a power supply that used vacuum tubes. The computer was targeted at industrial control applications, with 1024 analog inputs multiplexed to a 1.9K sample/s 10-bit analog-to-digital converter which was transparent to the programmer. Weighed about 600 pounds (270 kg). The real-time operating system was written by John Neblett, and was the intellectual precursor of the RSX-11 operating system for the PDP-11.
The TRW-130 computer was introduced in 1961, and designated the AN/UYK-1 by the US Navy as part of its pre-GPS TRANSIT (NAVSAT) satellite-based location system. It used Doppler shifts to compute a location in about 15 minutes, and had rounded corners to allow installation in submarines.
In 1965, engineers Don Nelson and Dick Pick at TRW developed the Generalized Information Retrieval Language and System, for use by the U.S. Army to control the inventory of Cheyenne helicopter parts. This developed into the Pick Database Management System which is still in use as of 2016.
TRW LSI Products, Inc. was a wholly owned subsidiary formed to commercialize the integrated circuit technology the company had developed in support of its aerospace business. They produced some of the first commercially available digital signal processing ICs including the TDC1008 multiplier-accumulator. They also made the first 8-bit flash ADC IC, the TDC1007, resulting in an Emmy Award for analog/digital video conversion technology. TRW also pioneered gallium arsenide (GaAs) chip applications for local multipoint distribution services (LMDS) systems, radios, and satellite communications.
In the mediaEdit
Christopher John Boyce was a TRW employee convicted of selling security secrets to the Soviet Union via the Soviet embassy in Mexico City in the mid-1970s. Boyce and his accomplice, Andrew Daulton Lee, were the subjects of the best-selling 1979 Robert Lindsey book The Falcon and the Snowman, and the 1985 film of the same title.
The Star Trek: The Original Series season 1 episode "Operation: Annihilate!" (April 13, 1967) was filmed on the campus-like TRW grounds in Redondo Beach, California. The two sets of stairs shown are those leading to the Cafeteria of Building S.
The TRW building is supposedly one of the credit company buildings demolished in the 1999 film Fight Club. This is because at the time the book was written, TRW was in the business of credit reporting. However, there is no TRW building in Delaware, where the demolition purportedly happens.
- 1974 Nelson P. Jackson Aerospace Award to TRW Systems Group with NASA Ames Research Center for Pioneer 10
- 1978 Nelson P. Jackson Aerospace Award for HEAO Program
- 1988-89 Emmy Award for analog/digital video conversion technology to TRW LSI Products
- 1990 Goddard Award for Quality and Productivity to Space and Technology Group
- 1992 Nelson P. Jackson Aerospace Award to Space and Technology Group with NASA for Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
- 1997 TRW Systems Integration Group receives an award for the successful development, deployment and operation of one of the nation's most vital space systems 
- 2001 Nelson P. Jackson Aerospace Award to TRW Systems Group with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for Chandra X-ray Observatory
- 2004 Nelson P. Jackson Aerospace Award to Northrop Grumman (formerly TRW) Space Technology Sector with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for TDRSS
- 2007 Emmy Award for Varicap to Sycom (formerly Pacific Semiconductors)
- "CNN Money, Fortune 500, TRW, 2000 rank: 103". Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/TRW-Inc-Company-History.html TRW Inc.
- "CNN Money, Fortune 500, TRW, 1986 rank: 57". Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "CNN Money; Fortune 500; 161. TRW Automotive Holdings". 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Elon Musk’s Space Dream Almost Killed Tesla, Ashley Vance, Bloomberg, 2015-05-14.
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- "This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury; Chapter 1 - The Lure, the lock, the Key (to 1958); Redstone and Atlas". 1989. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Encyclopedia Astronautica; Atlas". Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
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- http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/industry/trw.htm | TRW
- click on "History"
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- Dyer, Davis (1998). TRW: Pioneering Technology and Innovation Since 1900. Harvard Business Press. pp. 173–174, 272–273. ISBN 0875846068.
- Experian Information Solutions Inc.
- "Goodrich buys TRW's aeronautical arm for £1bn". 20 June 2002. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- Harrisburg Plant Fire.
- "FindArticles.com - CBSi". findarticles.com. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- Larick, Roy; et al. (2005). Euclid Creek. Arcadia Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 9780738539539.
- "Gates Calls for Increased Spending on Energy Research, Renewed Focus on Nuclear". 8 March 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
-  extract from the USAF Space and Missile Systems Center's History Office
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-31. Retrieved 2009-02-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Pioneer 0, 1, 2
-  Page 39
-  Page 44
-  First into the Outer Solar System
-  The Pioneer Jupiter Team
-  The Pioneer Missions
-  The Pioneer Jupiter Mission
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2011-03-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Farewell Pioneer 10
-  Scientists, Instruments, and Subcontractors
-  Webb: Past and Future
-  Vela
-  Advanced Vela
- "Defense Support program". FAS. Archived from the original on 2015-04-09.
- "TDRS". Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "The Earth Observing System Aqua" (PDF). Retrieved 23 August 2017.
-  Engines, Large and Small
-  Local man wins Emmy
-  2007 Emmy winners
- Weik, Martin H. (Mar 1961). "RW 300". ed-thelen.org. A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems.
-  RW-300 info
- RSX-11#External links Wikipedia RSX-11 External links
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2011-10-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) AN/UYK-1
- Chapin, Ned (1963). An introduction to automatic computers. Van Nostrand. p. 193.
-  Computer History - 1965
- TRW LSI Products VLSI Data Book, 1984
-  ADC Architectures 1
-  Outstanding Achievement in Technical/Engineering Development Awards Archived April 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- ""Mad Men" The Jet Set (2008) - Synopsis". IMDb. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- ""Star Trek" Operation - Annihilate! (TV Episode 1967)". Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "ESPN.com - Page2 - Reel Life: 'Fight Club'". espn.go.com. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
-  Major Professional Awards Won by AMES Personnel 1940-1980
-  Mission Planning
-  Chapter 4: Ames in the 1990s
-  US Black Engineer & IT 1994
-  Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1991-1995. NASA SP-2000-4028
- Deutch, J., "End of an Era" certificate, January 15, 1997, in recognition of "Outstanding and Dedicated Service to the United States National Security Space Program" presented to TRW Systems Integration Group
-  Chandra X-ray Observatory team wins Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum Trophy
-  NASA Goddard Captures Prestigious Nelson P. Jackson Aerospace Award
-  2007 Emmy winners]
- Northrop Grumman.com: TRW Heritage webpage
- Astronautix.com: TRW webpage
- TRW Automotive website
- TRW Conekt Automotive Research, Test and Development website
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