Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome
This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome|
|Other names||Sudden adult death syndrome (SADS), bed death, sudden unexpected/unexplained death syndrome (SUDS), sudden unexpected/unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS)|
Sudden unexpected death syndrome is rare in most areas around the world. This syndrome occurs in populations that are culturally and genetically distinct and people who leave the population carry with them the vulnerability to die suddenly during sleep. Sudden unexplained death syndrome was first noted in 1977 among southeast Asian Hmong refugees in the United States and Canada. The disease was again noted in Singapore when a retrospective survey of records showed that 230 otherwise healthy Thai foreign workers residing in Singapore died suddenly of unexplained causes between 1982 and 1990.
A sudden death in a young person can be caused by heart disease (including cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, myocarditis, genetic connective tissue disorders, or conduction disease), medication-related causes or other causes. Rare diseases called channelopathies may play a role such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia), PCCD (progressive cardiac conduction defect), early repolarisation syndrome, mixed sodium channel disease, and short QT syndrome. No cause of death is found, even after extensive examination in 5% of cases.[clarification needed]
Medical examiners have taken into account various factors, such as nutrition, toxicology, heart disease, metabolism, and genetics. Although there is no real known definite cause, extensive research showed people 18 years or older were found to have suffered from a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a condition in which the heart muscle becomes oddly thickened without any obvious cause. This was the most commonly identified abnormality in sudden death of young adults. In the instances where people experience sudden death, it is most commonly found that they were suffering from CAD (coronary artery disease) or ASCAD (atherosclerotic coronary artery disease), or any level of stress. However, studies reveal that people experienced early symptoms within the week before the terminal event such as chest pain at ~52% of victims, dyspnea at ~22%, syncope at ~7% and ~19% who experienced no symptoms. Scientists have also associated this syndrome with the gene SCN5A that is mutated and affects the function of the heart. However, all autopsies done on victims who suffered from this syndrome came back negative.
In Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines, bangungot (or in their term, sudden adult death syndrome) is caused by the Brugada syndrome.
Diagnosis usually occurs post-mortem.
In 1980 a reported pattern of sudden deaths brought attention to the Centers for Disease Control. The first reported sudden death occurred in 1948 when there were 81 series of similar deaths of Filipino men in Oahu County, Hawaii. However, it did not become relevant because there was no pattern associated. This syndrome continued to become more significant as years went on. By the year of 1981-1982, the annual rate in the United States was high with 92/100,000 among Laotians-Hmong, 82/100,000 among other Laotian ethnic groups, and 59/100,000 among Cambodians. This elevated rate is why the pattern of Asian sudden unexpected deaths was brought to attention in the United States.
Southeast Asian immigrants, who were mostly fleeing the Vietnam War, most often had this syndrome, marking Southeast Asia as the area containing the most people with this fatal syndrome. However, there are other Asian populations that were affected, such as Filipinos and Chinese immigrants in the Philippines, Japanese in Japan, and natives of Guam in the United States and Guam. Nonetheless, these particular immigrants who had this syndrome were about 33 years old and seemingly healthy and all but one of the Laotian Hmong refugees were men. The condition appears to affect primarily young Hmong men from Laos (median age 33) and northeastern Thailand (where the population are mainly of Laotian descent).
Laotian Hmongs were chosen for the study because they had one of the highest sudden death rates while sleeping in the United States. They were originally from Southern China and the highlands of North Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. The location that was picked for this study was in Ban Vinai in the Loei Province, which is approximately 15 kilometers from the Lao border. This study took place between October 1982 and June 1983 as this syndrome became more of a relevant pressing issue. Ban Vinai was the location chosen because it had 33,000 refugees in 1982, which was the largest population of victims. Because this syndrome was occurring most commonly in those particular men, researchers found it most beneficial and effective to study the population in which they migrated from instead of studying victims and populations in the U.S. Because of religious limitations the Hmong men in Ban Vinai were not allowed to receive autopsies. Therefore, the only results and research obtained were victims outside of their religion or geographical area. An interview was arranged with the next of kin who lived with the victim, witnessed the death, or found the body. The interviews were open ended and allowed the person who was next of kin to describe what they witnessed and what preceding events they thought were relevant to the victim's death. The interviewers also collected information such as illness history, the circumstances of the death, demographic background, and history of any sleep disturbances. A genealogy was then created which included all the relatives and their vital status and circumstances of death.
Society and cultureEdit
In a medical journal, the author suggested that the Hmong who died were killed by their own beliefs in the spiritual world, otherwise known as Nocturnal pressing spirit attacks. In Indonesia it is called digeuton, which translates to "pressed on" in English. In China it is called bèi guǐ yā (traditional Chinese: 被鬼壓; simplified Chinese: 被鬼压) which translates to "crushed by a ghost" in English. The Dutch call the presence a nachtmerrie, the night-mare. The "merrie" comes from the Middle Dutch mare, an incubus who "lies on people's chests, suffocating them". This phenomenon is known among the Hmong people of Laos, who ascribe these deaths to a malign spirit, dab tsuam (pronounced "dah chua"), said to take the form of a jealous woman.
During the 1970s and 1980s, when an outbreak of this syndrome began, many of the Southeast Asians were not able to worship properly due to the guerrilla war against the government of Laos with the United States. Hmong people believe that when they do not worship properly, do not perform religious ritual properly or forget to sacrifice, the ancestor spirits or the village spirits do not protect them, thus allowing the evil spirit to reach them. These attacks induce a nightmare that leads to sleep paralysis when the victim is conscious and experiencing pressure on the chest. It is also common to have a REM state that is out of sequence where there is a mix of brain states that are normally held separate. After the war, the United States government scattered the Hmong across the country to 53 different cities. Once these nightmare visitations began, a shaman was recommended for psychic protection from the spirits of their sleep. However, scattered across 53 different cities, these victims had no access to any or the right shaman to protect them from this syndrome.
Hmong people believed that rejecting the role of becoming a shaman, they are taken into the spirit world.
Bangungot is depicted in the Philippines as a mythological creature called batibat or bangungot. This hag-like creature sits on the victim's face or chest so as to immobilize and suffocate him. When this occurs, the victim usually experiences paralysis.
|sudden unexpected death syndrome||SUDS|
|sudden unexplained death syndrome||SUDS|
|sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome||SUNDS|
|sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome||SUNDS|
|sudden adult death syndrome||SADS||(parallel in form with SIDS)|
|sudden arrhythmia death syndrome||SADS|
|sudden arrhythmic death syndrome||SADS|
|sudden arrhythmic cardiac death syndrome||—|
Names in other languagesEdit
|bangungot or urom||Filipino||The term originated from the Tagalog word meaning "to rise and moan in sleep". It is also the Tagalog word for nightmare.|
|dab tsog||Hmong||dab tsog means 'ghost"|
|lai tai||Thai||(Thai: ใหลตาย; meaning "sleep and die")|
|ya thoom||Arabic|
|albarsty (Kyrgyz: албарсты)||Kyrgyz|
- Also known as SUDS. See: Reddy PR, Reinier K, Singh T, Mariani R, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Physical activity as a trigger of sudden cardiac arrest: The Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study. Int J Cardiol. 2008
- "Brugada Syndrome". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
- "Brugada syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
- Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1981). "Sudden, unexpected, nocturnal deaths among Southeast Asian refugees". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 30 (47): 581–589. PMID 6796814.
- Parrish RG, Tucker M, Ing R, Encarnacion C, Eberhardt M (1987). "Sudden unexplained death syndrome in Southeast Asian refugees: a review of CDC surveillance". MMWR Surveillance Summaries. 36 (1): 43SS–53SS. PMID 3110586.
- Goh KT, Chao TC, Chew CH (1990). "Sudden nocturnal deaths among Thai construction workers in Singapore". Lancet. 335 (8698): 1154. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91153-2. PMID 1971883.
- Elijah R Behr. "When a young person dies suddenly" (PDF). Cardiac Risk in the Young - CRY. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2014.
- Eckart, Robert E.; Shry, Eric A.; Burke, Allen P.; McNear, Jennifer A.; Appel, David A.; Castillo-Rojas, Laudino M.; Avedissian, Lena; Pearse, Lisa A.; Potter, Robert N. (2011). "Sudden Death in Young Adults". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 58 (12): 1254–1261. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.049. PMID 21903060.
- Tessa R. Salazar (19 June 2004). "Bangungot' in family? See a heart specialist". Inquirer News Service. Archived from the original on 30 June 2004.
- Nademanee K, Veerakul G, Mower M, et al. (2003). "Defibrillator Versus beta-Blockers for Unexplained Death in Thailand (DEBUT): a randomized clinical trial". Circulation. 107 (17): 2221–6. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000066319.56234.C8. PMID 12695290.
- Munger, Ronald (September 1987). "Sudden Death in Sleep of Laotian-Hmong Refugees in Thailand: A Case-Control Study". American Journal of Public Health. 77 (9): 1187–90. doi:10.2105/ajph.77.9.1187. PMC 1647019. PMID 3618851.
- Madrigal, Alexis C. (14 September 2011). "The Dark Side of the Placebo Effect: When Intense Belief Kills". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- Munger RG (1987). "Sudden death in sleep of Laotian-Hmong refugees in Thailand: a case-control study". American Journal of Public Health. 77 (9): 1187–90. doi:10.2105/AJPH.77.9.1187. PMC 1647019. PMID 3618851.
- Tungsanga K, Sriboonlue P (1993). "Sudden unexplained death syndrome in north-east Thailand". International Journal of Epidemiology. 22 (1): 81–7. doi:10.1093/ije/22.1.81. PMID 8449651.
- Adler SR (1995). "Refugee stress and folk belief: Hmong sudden deaths". Social Science & Medicine. 40 (12): 1623–9. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)00347-V. PMID 7660175.
- Munger RG, Booton EA (1998). "Bangungut in Manila: sudden and unexplained death in sleep of adult Filipinos". Int J Epidemiol. 27 (4): 677–84. doi:10.1093/ije/27.4.677. PMID 9758125.
- Munger, Ronald G.; Booton, Elizabeth A. (1998). "Bangungut in Manila: sudden and unexplained death in sleep of adult Filipinos" (PDF). International Journal of Epidemiology. 27 (4): 677–684. doi:10.1093/ije/27.4.677. PMID 9758125. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Himmunngan P, Sangwatanaroj S, Petmitr S, Viroonudomphol D, Siriyong P, Patmasiriwat P (March 2006). "HLa-class II (DRB & DQB1) in Thai sudden unexplained death syndrome (Thai SUDS) families (Lai-Tai families)". Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 37 (2): 357–65. PMID 17124999.
- Gotoh K (1976). "A histopathological study on the conduction system of the so-called "Pokkuri disease" (sudden unexpected cardiac death of unknown origin in Japan". Jpn Circ J. 40 (7): 753–68. doi:10.1253/jcj.40.753. PMID 966364.
- Agence France Presse (8 April 2002). "Sleeping death syndrome terrorises young men". The Borneo Post.
- Center for Disease Control (23 September 1988). "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome Among Southeast Asian Refugees". MMWR.