|Rundata ID||DR 357|
Text – Native
|Proto-Norse : <niuha>borumz <niuha>gestumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra niu habrumz, niu hangistumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra ginnurunoz. Hermalausaz argiu, Weladauþs, sa þat briutiþ.|
|Text – English|
|(To the) <niuha>dwellers (and) <niuha>guests Haþuwulfar gave ful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here nine bucks, nine stallions, Haþuwulfar gave fruitful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here runes of power. Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who this breaks.|
|Runestones – Runic alphabet
Runology – Runestone styles
- AP niuhAborumz ¶ niuhagestumz ¶ hAþuwolAfz gAf j ¶ hAriwolAfz (m)A--u snuh-e ¶ hidez runono fe(l)(A)h ekA hed¶erA
- AQ niu hAborumz ¶ niu hagestumz ¶ hAþuwolAfz gAf j ¶ hAriwolAfz (m)A--u snuh-e ¶ hidez runono fe(l)(A)h ekA hed¶erA
- B ginoronoz
- C herAmAlAsAz ¶ ArAgeu we(l)Aduds| |sA þAt
- D bAriutiþ
- AP <niuha>borumz <niuha>gestumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra
- AQ niu habrumz, niu hangistumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra
- B ginnurunoz.
- C Hermalausaz argiu, Weladauþs, sa þat
- D briutiþ.
This is the English translation provided by Rundata:
- AP(To the) <niuha>dwellers (and) <niuha>guests Haþuwulfar gave ful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here
- AQ nine bucks, nine stallions, Haþuwulfar gave fruitful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here
- B runes of power.
- C Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who this
- D breaks.
In lines AP and AQ, in the phrase "gaf j" ("gave j"), the j-rune is an ideogram which stands for its rune name jara, meaning "harvest" or "bountiful or fruitful year." One author suggests that line AQ is describing an animal sacrifice in return for a good harvest as part of a fertility ritual.
The Stentoften runestone was discovered in 1823 by the dean O. Hammer. It was lying down with the inscription facing downwards, surrounded by five sharp larger stones forming a pentagon or a pentagram. Consequently, the stone has been part of a larger monument like the Björketorp Runestone further east. In 1864, the runestone was moved into the church of Sölvesborg.
Most scholars date the inscription to the 7th century and it is carved with a type of runes that form an intermediate version between the Elder Futhark and the Younger Futhark. A characteristic example of this is the a-rune which has the same form as the h-rune of the younger futhark. This is the rune that is transliterated with A. The k-rune, which looks like a Y is a transition form between and in the two futharks. There are quite few intermediary inscriptions like this one. Three more are known from Blekinge, i.e. the Björketorp Runestone, the Istaby Runestone and the Gummarp Runestone, which were moved to Copenhagen and lost in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728.
The Stentoften, Istaby Runestone and Gummarp Runestone inscriptions can be identified with the same clan through the names that are mentioned on them, and the names are typical for chieftains. The Björketorp Runestone lacks names and is raised some tens of kilometers from the others. However, it is beyond doubt that the Björketorp runestone is connected to them, because in addition to the special runic forms, the same message is given on the Stentoften Runestone. It is obvious that these runestones are not carved by the same man, and so it appears that the runestones reflects a specific runic tradition in the Blekinge area during the 7th century. Runologist Michael Schulte suggests that the archaic text of the Stentoften stone is more effective from a dramatic perspective than the younger and more explicit version on the Björketorp stone.
The name Hariwulfa is a combination of hari meaning "warrior" and wulafa "wolf," while the haþu of Haþuwulfz means "battle." It has been suggested that the assignment of such lycophoric names may have been related to ritualistic practices and religious wolf-symbolism used in the initiation of young warriors. A shortened form of the name Hariwulfa survived into the Viking Age and is attested in the inscription on the Hærulf Runestone.
- Jacobsen, Lis & Moltke, Erik (1941). Danmarks Runeindskrifter. 3rd tome.
- Looijenga, Tineke (2003). Texts & Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV. ISBN 90-04-12396-2.
- MacLeod, Mindy; Mees, Bernard (2006). Runic Amulets and Magic Objects. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-205-4.
- Sundqvist, Olof; Hultgård, Anders (2004). "The Lycophoric Names of the 6th to 7th Century Blekinge Runestones and the Problem of Their Ideological Background". In van Nahl, Astrid; Elmevik, Lennart et seq. Namenwelten: Orts- und Personennamen in Historischer Sicht. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 583–602. ISBN 3-11-018108-8.
- Schulte, Michael. 2008. Stylistic variation in runic inscriptions? ANF 123:5-22.
- Thorngren, Karl-Gösta: Runstenar i Blekinge. Blekingeboken 1942. pp. 63–96.