Starfish Prime was a high-altitude nuclear test conducted by the United States, a joint effort of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Defense Atomic Support Agency. It was launched from Johnston Atoll on July 9, 1962 and was the largest nuclear test conducted in outer space and one of five conducted by the US in space.
The debris fireball stretching along Earth's magnetic field with air-glow aurora as seen at 3 minutes from a surveillance aircraft.
|Test series||Operation Fishbowl|
|Test site||Johnston Atoll|
|Date||July 9, 1962|
|Yield||1.4 Mt (5.9 PJ)|
A Thor rocket carrying a W49 thermonuclear warhead (designed by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) and a Mk. 2 reentry vehicle was launched from Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, about 900 miles (1,450 km) west-southwest of Hawaii. The explosion took place at an altitude of 250 miles (400 km), above a point 19 miles (31 km) southwest of Johnston Atoll. It had a yield of 1.4 Mt (5.9 PJ). The explosion was about 10° above the horizon as seen from Hawaii, at 11 PM Hawaii time.(p3)
The Starfish test was one of five high-altitude tests grouped together as Operation Fishbowl within the larger Operation Dominic, a series of tests in 1962 begun in response to the Soviet announcement on August 30, 1961, that they would end a three-year moratorium on testing.
In 1958 the United States had completed six high-altitude nuclear tests, but the high-altitude tests of that year produced many unexpected results and raised many new questions. According to the U.S. Government Project Officer's Interim Report on the Starfish Prime project:
Previous high-altitude nuclear tests: YUCCA, TEAK, and ORANGE, plus the three ARGUS shots were poorly instrumented and hastily executed. Despite thorough studies of the meager data, present models of these bursts are sketchy and tentative. These models are too uncertain to permit extrapolation to other altitudes and yields with any confidence. Thus there is a strong need, not only for better instrumentation, but for further tests covering a range of altitudes and yields.
The Starfish test was originally planned as the second in the Fishbowl series, but the first launch (Bluegill) was lost by the radar tracking equipment and had to be destroyed in flight.
The initial Starfish launch attempt on June 20 was aborted in flight due to failure of the Thor launch vehicle. The Thor missile flew a normal trajectory for 59 seconds; then the rocket engine stopped, and the missile began to break apart. The range safety officer ordered the destruction of the missile and warhead. The missile was between 30,000 and 35,000 feet (9,100 and 10,700 m) in altitude when it was destroyed. Parts of the missile and some radioactive contamination fell upon Johnston Atoll and nearby Sand Island and the surrounding ocean.
On July 9, 1962, at 09:00:09 Coordinated Universal Time (11:00:09 p.m. on July 8, 1962, Honolulu time), the Starfish Prime test was detonated at an altitude of 250 miles (400 km). The coordinates of the detonation were Coordinates: .(p4) The actual weapon yield came very close to the design yield, which various sources have set at different values in the range of 1.4 to 1.45 Mt (5.9 to 6.1 PJ). The nuclear warhead detonated 13 minutes 41 seconds after liftoff of the Thor missile from Johnston Atoll.
Starfish Prime caused an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that was far larger than expected, so much larger that it drove much of the instrumentation off scale, causing great difficulty in getting accurate measurements. The Starfish Prime electromagnetic pulse also made those effects known to the public by causing electrical damage in Hawaii, about 898 miles (1,445 km) away from the detonation point, knocking out about 300 streetlights,(p5) setting off numerous burglar alarms, and damaging a telephone company microwave link. The EMP damage to the microwave link shut down telephone calls from Kauai to the other Hawaiian islands.
A total of 27 small rockets were launched from Johnston Atoll to obtain experimental data from the Starfish Prime detonation. In addition, a large number of rocket-borne instruments were launched from Barking Sands, Kauai, in the Hawaiian Islands.
A large number of United States military ships and aircraft were operating in support of Starfish Prime in the Johnston Atoll area and across the nearby North Pacific region.
A few military ships and aircraft were also positioned in the region of the South Pacific Ocean near the Samoan Islands. This location was at the southern end of the magnetic field line of the Earth's magnetic field from the position of the nuclear detonation, an area known as the "southern conjugate region" for the test. An uninvited scientific expeditionary ship from the Soviet Union was stationed near Johnston Atoll for the test, and another Soviet scientific expeditionary ship was in the southern conjugate region near the Samoan Islands.
After the Starfish Prime detonation, bright auroras were observed in the detonation area, as well as in the southern conjugate region on the other side of the equator from the detonation. According to one of the first technical reports:
The visible phenomena due to the burst were widespread and quite intense; a very large area of the Pacific was illuminated by the auroral phenomena, from far south of the south magnetic conjugate area (Tongatapu) through the burst area to far north of the north conjugate area (French Frigate Shoals)... At twilight after the burst, resonant scattering of light from lithium and other debris was observed at Johnston and French Frigate Shoals for many days confirming the long time presence of debris in the atmosphere. An interesting side effect was that the Royal New Zealand Air Force was aided in anti-submarine maneuvers by the light from the bomb.
According to U.S. atomic veteran Cecil R. Coale, some hotels in Hawaii offered "rainbow bomb" parties on their roofs for Starfish Prime, contradicting some reports that the artificial aurora was unexpected.
"A 'Quick Look' at the Technical Results of Starfish Prime" (August 1962) states:
At Kwajalein, 1,400 [nautical] miles [2,600 km; 1,600 mi] to the west, a dense overcast extended the length of the eastern horizon to a height of 5 or 8 degrees. At 0900 GMT a brilliant white flash burned through the clouds rapidly changing to an expanding green ball of irradiance extending into the clear sky above the overcast. From its surface extruded great white fingers, resembling cirro-stratus clouds, which rose to 40 degrees above the horizon in sweeping arcs turning downward toward the poles and disappearing in seconds to be replaced by spectacular concentric cirrus like rings moving out from the blast at tremendous initial velocity, finally stopping when the outermost ring was 50 degrees overhead. They did not disappear but persisted in a state of frozen stillness. All this occurred, I would judge, within 45 seconds. As the purplish light turned to magenta and began to fade at the point of burst, a bright red glow began to develop on the horizon at a direction 50 degrees north of east and simultaneously 50 degrees south of east expanding inward and upward until the whole eastern sky was a dull burning red semicircle 100 degrees north to south and halfway to the zenith obliterating some of the lesser stars. This condition, interspersed with tremendous white rainbows, persisted no less than ninety minutes.
At zero time at Johnston, a white flash occurred, but as soon as one could remove his goggles, no intense light was present. A second after shot time a mottled red disc was observed directly overhead and covered the sky down to about 45 degrees from the zenith. Generally, the red mottled region was more intense on the eastern portions. Along the magnetic north-south line through the burst, a white-yellow streak extended and grew to the north from near zenith. The width of the white streaked region grew from a few degrees at a few seconds to about 5–10 degrees in 30 seconds. Growth of the auroral region to the north was by addition of new lines developing from west to east. The white-yellow auroral streamers receded upward from the horizon to the north and grew to the south and at about 2 minutes the white-yellow bands were still about 10 degrees wide and extended mainly from near zenith to the south. By about two minutes, the red disc region had completed disappearance in the west and was rapidly fading on the eastern portion of the overhead disc. At 400 seconds essentially all major visible phenomena had disappeared except for possibly some faint red glow along the north-south line and on the horizon to the north. No sounds were heard at Johnston Atoll that could be definitely attributed to the detonation.
Strong electromagnetic signals were observed from the burst, as were significant magnetic field disturbances and earth currents.
A 2006 report described the particle and field measurements of the Starfish diamagnetic cavity and the injected beta flux into the artificial radiation belt. These measurements describe the explosion from 0.1 milliseconds to 16 minutes after the detonation.
While some of the energetic beta particles followed the Earth's magnetic field and illuminated the sky, other high-energy electrons became trapped and formed radiation belts around the Earth. There was much uncertainty and debate[by whom?] about the composition, magnitude and potential adverse effects from this trapped radiation after the detonation. The weaponeers became quite worried when three satellites in low Earth orbit were disabled. These included TRAAC and Transit 4B. The half-life of the energetic electrons was only a few days. At the time it was not known that solar and cosmic particle fluxes varied by a factor of 10, and energies could exceed 1 MeV (0.16 pJ). In the months that followed these man-made radiation belts eventually caused six or more satellites to fail, as radiation damaged their solar arrays or electronics, including the first commercial relay communication satellite, Telstar, as well as the United Kingdom's first satellite, Ariel 1. Detectors on Telstar, TRAAC, Injun, and Ariel 1 were used to measure distribution of the radiation produced by the tests.
Resulting scientific discoveriesEdit
The Starfish EMP waveform measured by Richard L. Wakefield of Los Alamos led to a revolution in understanding this nuclear effect.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Starfish Prime.|
- Vittitoe, Charles N. (June 1, 1989). Did High-Altitude EMP Cause the Hawaiian Streetlight Incident? (pdf) (Report). Sandia National Laboratories. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- "Operation Dominic: 1962 - Christmas Island, Johnston Island, Central Pacific". nuclearweaponarchive.org. January 3, 2005. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
The Soviet Union had abrogated the 34 month old de facto nuclear testing moratorium on 1 September 1961 by initiating an unprecedented series of atmospheric nuclear tests.
- Loadabrand, Ray L.; Dolphin, Lambert T. (August 1, 1962). "Chapter 1". Project Officer's Interim Report: STARFISH Prime (pdf) (Report). Field Command, Defense Atomic Support Agency. Defense Technical Information Center. p. 2. DA 49-146-XZ-137. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 17, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
Previous high-altitude nuclear tests: TEAK, ORANGE, and YUCCA, plus the three ARGUS shots were poorly instrumented and hastily executed. Despite thorough studies of the meager data, present models of these bursts are sketchy and tentative. These models are too uncertain to permit extrapolation to other altitudes and yields with any confidence. Thus there is a strong need, not only for better instrumentation, but for further tests covering a range of altitudes and yields.
- Berkhouse, L.; Davis, S. E.; Gladeck, F. R.; Hallowell, J. H.; Jones, C. B.; et al. (February 1, 1983). "CHAPTER 7 - FISHBOWL -- HIGH-ALTITUDE EVENTS". OPERATION DOMINIC I—1962 (PDF). Defense Threat Reduction Agency. dtra.mil (Report). United States Department of Defense. pp. 228–229. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 13, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
A substantial amount of debris fell on and in the water around Johnston Island. Navy Exploisive Ordance Disposal and Underwater Demolition Team swimmers spent 2 weeks recovering debris from the lagoon waters around the island. They recovered aproximately 250 pieces of the system, some of which were plutonium-contaminated.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Dyal, P., Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Report ADA995428. "Operation Dominic. Fish Bowl Series. Debris Expansion Experiment". December 10, 1965. Page 15. Retrieved July 17, 2010.
- Michio Kaku; Daniel Axelrod (1987). To Win a Nuclear War: The Pentagon's Secret War Plans. Black Rose Books Ltd. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-921689-06-5.
- Conca, James "Can Nuclear Power Plants Resist Attack of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)" Forbes. January 2019
- United States Department of Defense. Report ADA955411. "A Quick Look at the Technical Results of Starfish Prime". August 1962.
- United States Central Intelligence Agency. National Intelligence Estimate. Number 11-2A-63. "The Soviet Atomic Energy Program" Archived May 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Page 44.
- Schwoch, James. Global TV: New Media and the Cold War, 1946-69 (Illinois, 2009). Web. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- Dyal, Palmer (2006). "Particle and field measurements of the Starfish diamagnetic cavity". Journal of Geophysical Research. 111 (A12211): A12211. Bibcode:2006JGRA..11112211D. doi:10.1029/2006JA011827.
- "Transit 4B - NSSDC ID: 1961-031A". NASA NSSDC.
- "The 50th anniversary of Starfish Prime: the nuke that shook the world - Bad Astronomy". Bad Astronomy. July 9, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- Early, James M. "Telstar I – Dawn of a New Age". Southwest Museum of Engineering, Communications and Computation. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
- "50 Years Ago, Communications Became Global – interview with Walter Brown of Bell Labs". NPR. July 14, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
- Ralph D. Lorenz, David Michael Harland (2005). Space Systems Failures: Disasters and Rescues of Satellites, Rocket and Space Probes. Springer. ISBN 0-387-21519-0.
- Smallwood, Karl. "That Time the US Accidentally Nuked Britain's First Satellite". Today I Found Out. Gizmodo. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Hess, Wilmot N. (September 1964). "The Effects of High Altitude Explosions" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA TN D-2402. Retrieved May 13, 2015. Cite journal requires
- Brown, W. L.; Gabbe, J. D. (March 1963). "The Electron Distribution in the Earth's Radiation Belts during July 1962 As Measured by Telstar". Journal of Geophysical Research. 68 (3): 607–618. Bibcode:1963JGR....68..607B. doi:10.1029/JZ068i003p00607. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- In The Radiation Belt and Magnetosphere.
- Review of early data on mixing rate of polar and tropical air masses
- Wakefield's 1962 report is Measurement of time interval from electromagnetic signal received in C-130 aircraft, 753 nautical miles (1,395 km) from burst, at 11 degrees 16 minutes North, 115 degrees 7 minutes West, 24,750 feet. http://glasstone.blogspot.com/2006/03/emp-radiation-from-nuclear-space.html
- on YouTube
- Krulwich, Robert (July 1, 2010). "A Very Scary Light Show: Exploding H-Bombs In Space". National Public Radio. Retrieved July 5, 2010. - includes video of the explosion and audio of witness accounts.