Sponge diving

Sponge diving is underwater diving to collect soft natural sponges for human use. It is the oldest known form of underwater diving.[citation needed]

Sponge diver putting on his diving suit in Tarpon Springs, Florida.
Display of natural sponges for sale on Kalymnos in Greece


Most sponges are too rough for general use due to their structural spicules composed of calcium carbonate or silica. But two genera, Hippospongia and Spongia, have soft, entirely fibrous skeletons. These two genera are most commonly used by humans.

It is unknown when exactly the sponge became an article of use. In Ancient Greek writings, Homer and Plato mentioned the sponge as an object used for bathing. Through trading, Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters. Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes, and discreet contraceptives. However, by the mid-20th century, over-fishing had brought both the animals and the industry close to extinction.[1]

Many objects with sponge-like textures are now made of substances not derived from poriferans. Synthetic "sponges" include: personal and household cleaning tools, breast implants,[2] and contraceptive sponges.[3]


In Kalymnos, only 18% of the steep volcanic land could be cultivated, so the main occupations were trading, boat building and sponge fishing, which perhaps was the oldest occupation on the island. Diving for sponges brought social and economic development to the island: the freediving method was used. Kalymnos was the main centre of production in the Aegean, and is still a traditional albeit less common occupation of the Greeks on the Island with related exhibitions, along with other local folklore, and three museums about the occupation.

1897 schematic of commercial sponge diving

When sponge diving, the crew went out into the Mediterranean Sea in a small boat, and used a cylindrical object with a glass bottom to search the sea floor for sponges. When one was found, a diver went overboard to get it. Freediving, he was usually naked and carried a 15 kilograms (33 lb) skandalopetra, a rounded stone tied on a rope to the boat, to take him down to the bottom quickly. The diver then cut the sponge loose from the bottom and put a special net around it. Depth and bottom time depended on the diver's lung capacity. They often went down about 30 metres (100 ft) for up to 5 minutes.[4]


  1. ^ McClenachan, Loren (2008). "Social conflict, Over-fishing and Disease in the Florida Sponge Fishery, 1849-1939". In Starkey, David John; Holm, Poul; Barnard, Michaela (eds.). Oceans Past: Management Insights from the History of Marine Animal Populations. Earthscan. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-1-84407-527-0. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  2. ^ Jacobson, Nora (2000). Cleavage. Rutgers University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8135-2715-5. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  3. ^ "Sponges". Cervical Barrier Advancement Society. 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  4. ^ Hendrikse, Sandra; Merks, André (12 May 2009). "Greek sponge diving". Diving Heritage. Retrieved 6 June 2010.

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