Speculum al foder (sometimes known as "The Mirror of Coitus" or literally "a mirror to fuck") is a 15th-century Catalan text discovered in the 1970s.[1][2] This text is significant as it is a rare example of known Medieval treatise describing the art of sexual positions (others examples include Aretino's I Modi ["The Ways"], also known as "The Sixteen Pleasures").[3]


  1. ^ Michael R. Solomon (ed.) (1986). Text and Concordance of Speculum al foder, Biblioteca Nacional MS. 3356. ISBN 0-942260-60-0
  2. ^ Michael R. Solomon (1990). The Mirror of coitus: a translation and edition of the fifteenth-century Speculum al foder. Spanish. ISBN 0-940639-48-3
  3. ^ I Modi: The Sixteen Pleasures. An erotic album of the Italian renaissance / Giulio Romano … [et al.] edited, translated from the Italian and with a commentary by Lynne Lawner. Northwestern University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-7206-0724-8