Sophistical Refutations (Greek: Σοφιστικοὶ Ἔλεγχοι; Latin: De Sophisticis Elenchis) is a text in Aristotle's Organon in which he identified thirteen fallacies.[note 1] According to Aristotle, this is the first work to treat the subject of deductive reasoning (Soph. Ref., 34, 183b34 ff.).
The fallacies Aristotle identifies are the following:
- Fallacies in the language (in dictione)
- Fallacies not in the language (extra dictionem)
- Sometimes listed as twelve.