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Socionics, in psychology and sociology, is a theory of information processing and personality type, distinguished by its information model of the psyche (called "Model A") and a model of interpersonal relations. It incorporates Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types with Antoni Kępiński's theory of information metabolism. Socionics is a modification of Jung's personality type theory that uses eight psychic functions, in contrast to Jung's model, which used only four. These functions are supposed to process information at varying levels of competency and interact with the corresponding function in other individuals, giving rise to predictable reactions and impressions—a theory of intertype relations.
Socionics was developed in the 1970s and 1980s, primarily by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, an economist, sociologist, psychologist, and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University's department of family science. The name "socionics" is derived from the word "society", because Augustinavičiūtė believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics.
The central idea of socionics is that information is intuitively divisible into eight categories, called information aspects or information elements, which a person's psyche processes using eight psychological functions. Each sociotype has a different correspondence between functions and information elements, which results in different ways of perceiving, processing, and producing information. This in turn results in distinct thinking patterns, values, and responses to arguments, all of which are encompassed within socionic type. Socionics' theory of intertype relations is based on the interaction of these functions between types.
In 1995 socionics was recognized as a discovery by the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (not to be confused with Russian Academy of Sciences), and its creator Aušra Augustinavičiūtė was granted a certificate of discovery (diploma) and a medal.
Socionics provides a means of predicting the character of relations and degree of business compatibility, information sharing and psychological compatibility of people before their joining in one collective group, i.e. to solve the "inverse task" of sociometry.
According to Aleksandr Bukalov and Betty Lou Leaver, socionics uses Jungian typology, informational model of psyche, and theory of information metabolism for political and sociological analysis.
According to G. Fink and B. Mayrhofer, socionics is considered one of the four most popular models of personality (including cybernetic theory Maruyama, five-factor model, Big Five" and typology Myers–Briggs Type Indicator), deserving special attention because of its importance in the study of personality.
According to J. Horwood, and A. Maw socionics is a science developed by Ausra Augustinaviciute in the 1970s. Augustinaviciute and her colleagues worked with Carl Jung's personality typologies to develop personality-based relationship profiles. It was found that the nature and development of interpersonal relationships (both professional and personal) are far from random. Instead, they are based on how well suited each individual's psychological profiles are to one another, allowing Augustinaviciute to develop 16 'socionic types' predicting and describing the interpersonal relationships between any combination of Jung's personality types.
According to R. Blutner and E. Hochnadel, "socionics is not so much a theory of personalities per se, but much more a theory of type relations providing an analysis of the relationships that arise as a consequence of the interaction of people with different personalities."
Philosopher L. Monastyrsky treats socionics as pre-science. At the same time, L. Monastyrsky himself proposes to pay attention to "the concept of socionic type".
Philosopher E. Pletuhina defines socionics as the study about the information interaction of the human psyche with the outside world, between people. She also defines it as the doctrine of psychological types of people and the relationships between them, as well as notes that the particular quality of socionics is that it considers the innate qualities of the human psyche, including the personality type, which cannot be arbitrarily changed without prejudice to the mental and physical health.
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The basic structure of socionics was established in the 1960s and 1970s by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė,[clarification needed] along with a group of enthusiasts who met in Vilnius, Lithuania. What resulted from their discussions and Augustinavičiūtė's personal investigations was an information model of the psyche and of interpersonal interaction based on Jung's typology but with eight psychic functions rather than four. Augustinavičiūtė's first works on socionics were published between 1978 and 1980.
Relation to the Myers–Briggs Type IndicatorEdit
According to Betty Lou Leaver, Madeline Ehrman, and Boris Shekhtman, like the MBTI, socionics is a sixteen-type derivative of Jung's work. Unlike MBTI, which is widely criticized for the lack of validity and utility, the socionics model, which is in some use in Eastern and Western Europe, as well as throughout Eurasia, Central Asia, and the Baltic nations, strives to stay very close to the original descriptions and type labels suggested by Carl Jung. According to Betty Lou Leaver, "today's concepts of personality emanate most frequently from the work of Carl Jung, whose theories and research have blossomed into a juncture of philosophical and sociological inquiry. This field of inquiry has been called socionics."
According to Sergei Moshenkov and Tung Tang Wing, "MBTI and Socionics are contemporary sister sciences that categorize and describe human personality types in accordance to the predominance of certain mental faculties called psychic functions by Dr. Carl Jung."
A. Shmelev in his review of the book "MBTI: type definition" by I. Myers-Briggs and P. Myers notes the highest popularity of socionic books in Russian and remarks that their authors are appealing to the literary and artistic associations of the mass reader, in contradistinction to books on MBTI, which contain the empirical and statistical data on the types distribution in professional groups. S.A. Bogomaz considers the socionic typology as a version of post-Jung typology and believes that on a number of criteria it is more perspective than MBTI for the study of the differences between people, because it expands the volume of the typological features and offers an opportunity to form various typological groups with different motivations, attitudes, temperament, perception of information and thinking styles. It is also important the existence of preconditions to study intertype relations, that are substantially not developed within MBTI. S.A. Bogomaz thinks that the creation of the theory of intertype relationships is undoubtedly contribution of A.Augustinavichiute to the development of Jung typologies.
Currently, socionic methods are widely used in academic and applied research. According to the catalog DisserCat from 1996 to 2011 in Russia, Ukraine and other countries were defended more than 800 doctoral theses, using methods and analytic tools of socionics in management, education, psychology, anthropology, medicine, philosophy, philology, sports, and law.
The International Institute of Socionics publishes four scientific peer-reviewed journals on the practical application of the methods of socionics in management, consulting, psychology, pedagogy, education, psychotherapy, and humanities. The Institute gives "popularization and proliferation of socionic knowledge" as one of its goals.
There are several socionics organizations. The International Institute of Socionics (IIS) was established in 1991 in Kiev, Ukraine, and for years has held the most prominent annual international socionics conference. The institute pursues the continued development of socionics theory, renders commercial consulting services, and since 1994 has released a bimonthly journal Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology (six issues a year). Topics in the journal usually range anywhere from studies and applications of the primary principles of socionics to speculative extensions of the theory. The director and founder of the institute is Dr. Aleksandr Bukalov. In 2006 the institute established an International Academic Board to issue bachelors, masters, and PhD degrees in socionics.
The Scientific Research Socionics Institute is located in Moscow, Russia, and is led by Tatyana Prokofieva. The institute primarily studies socionics, personality and relationships within a socionics context, and develops methods of individual and business consulting. Furthermore, the institute provides socionics instruction allowing participants to receive a bachelors or master's degree in socionics according to the criteria of the International Institute of Socionics.
The Applied Socionics School founded in 2003 is located in Moscow, Russia, with local branches in several cities (Murmansk, Petrozavodsk, Rostov-na-Donu, and Krasnodar), and is led by Elena Udalova. The School developed educational courses about basic knowledge of socionics, the intertype relations, and sociotype distortions, as well as local trainings devoted to the introverted ethics and introverted intuition. The local trainings are conducted for persons of sociotypes having their strengths in respective functions (Fi or Ni, respectively).
The School of System Socionics was founded by Vladimir Davidovich Ermak in November 1991 in Kiev, Ukraine. In 2005 official School of System Socionics web site was founded by I. M. Eglit. Since then it has become creative laboratory of practical socionics and platform for training socionists—experts in TIM identification. The School has developed Methodology of remote TIM Identification, introduced a school-standard identification protocol and computer-aided type identification techniques.
Socionics as an academic disciplineEdit
Through the work of the International Institute of Socionics and other schools of socionics, there are four peer-reviewed journals and an annual International conference on socionics. A.V. Bukalov and O.B. Karpenko note that socionics is taught in more than 150 universities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and other CIS countries, as well as in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Romania, either as a separate course, or, in view of the applicability of the various methods of socionics Humanities, as part of educational courses on Sociology, Pedagogy, Social Psychology, Management and Psychology of Management, human resource management, Conflictology, social services and Tourism, Computer Science and Programming, Philosophy, Neurology, Journalism, Library Science, Social Work, Didactics and others, including Engineering disciplines.
Some universities in Russia (including Altai State Technical University,Bashkir State University,Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, and Saint Petersburg State University) Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania have published or commissioned a number of textbooks and monographs on socionics, or on psychology, pedagogy and management, which socionics and its methods are devoted to specific topics.
There are new areas of research, such as educational socionics, sociological socionics, aviation socionics, library socionics, technical socionics, linguistic socionics, penitentiary socionics, and socionics in other subject areas.
Socionics is used in education process, not only as a tool for teachers to manage the learning process, but also as a basis for the development and improvement of education and training. Bogdanova claim that a teacher holding socionic knowledge and technologies can consciously collaborate with others and improve professional efficiency. Targeted use of intertype relations helps intensify the didactic process, increase the motivation of students. Socionics is also used to assess the individual psychological and personal qualities to forecast the success of employee career.
Socionics is a tool for the study of personality and creativity of the writer, the typology of the characters in his works. The method of linguistic-socionic modeling proposed by L. M. Komissarova, used for analysis of individual lexicon of language personality. A translation of socionic characteristics in verbal ones is called the "method of linguistic-socionic modeling" and widely used.
Socionic methods have been proposed for the modeling of information processes in the "human-machine" systems, and practically used to model systems "aircraft operator" in pilots' training, and other similar areas.
Due to the variety of applications of socionics, its concepts and information models, in the 1990s, Bukalov was proposed to distinguish socionics of personality, or differential socionics, and generalized, more abstract integral socionics. Bukalov believes that the concept of information metabolism, cybernetic modeling and general systems theory extends beyond of psychology and sociology, and consider the relationship of technical information devices, and the types of information human interactions as operator with various technical and electronic management systems of major industries, including chemical, nuclear power stations, complex computer complexes with adaptive tunable to a specific operator interfaces.
Propagation of socionicsEdit
In Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Georgia, Bulgaria, and Central Asia, socionics has grown significantly in popularity. A number of organizations which periodically hold conferences in Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities.
Socionics was first introduced in English in the mid-1990s when Sergei Ganin created Socionics.com. Since 1997, there is a resource of the International Institute of Socionics, Socionic.info. Dmitri Lytov, creator of the multi-language socionics resource, Socioniko.net, presented a more classical view of socionics and participated in online discussions in English. In 2006 Rick DeLong published hand translations of excerpts of several works by Augustinavičiūtė at Socionics.us, which clarified her views.
International Institute of Socionics lists a number of academic publications on socionics in English in peer-reviewed journals. Since 2000 socionics as a scientific discipline and a field of research has been recognized in Russia and Ukraine. The 2015 academic research and applied work in the field of socionics was held in Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Bulgaria, Great Britain, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Estonia, Austria, Germany, and others, as well as in the United States.
Socionists[who?] have devised humanitarian, political, and information technologies that have been applied to various fields of human activity. Socionic techniques have been applied at more than 120 enterprises from Russia, Ukraine, Germany, and the Baltics by members of the International Institute of Socionics. Socionics is widely used in management, recruitment consultancy (professional orientation, team-compatibility, building company's strategy according to employees types), trainings of aviation and space crews, pedagogy (researches on interaction between teacher and students, problems of learning), family consultancy (marriage and divorce issues, age problems), fundamental science researches (mathematical modeling, genetics, psychophysics, morphology – external parameters of socionics types), psychology games and trainings.
Socionics technologies in management, staff recruitment and team buildingEdit
Management is the area concerned with the application of both theoretical and practical socionics methods and S-technologies. Socionics methods and techniques were successfully implemented by the fellow consultants of International Institute of Socionics and their colleagues in management, reorganization, and team building in more than 150 firms, banks and companies in Germany, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine and other countries, included 30 enterprises of the Russian gas concern "Gazprom" in the North of Russia. Management of Deutsche Bank is using socionics methods to evaluate potential of its future employees.
Prof. J. Horwood and Prof. A. Maw socionics used to form the surgical ambulances
In recent decades interest to socionics tools in German, Russian, Ukrainian and other companies has grown dramatically. Socinics model has been implemented in enterprises of the world's largest aluminium company Rusal for evaluating its employees. Different tools are used to define sociotypes, this involves observing and testing based on well-known test methods.
Numerous researches[who?] dedicated to practical and theoretical socionics have proved its efficiency in forming collectives, particularly special and related to security systems. For example, experimental research of aircraft control services, which was conducted at St. Petersburg State University had shown that quality of interaction integral controller which was calculated on the basis of SMoIR (socionics model of intertype relationships) is correlated with sociometric data colour test relations. Also there are a number of scientific monographs and textbooks about significant role of socionics practices and methods in forming effective teams.
Authors of these works point out that modeling of situations in groups can be done in two ways: by forming small groups based on socionics structure (quadras, clubs and temperament types) or by analysis of intertype relations between team members. Choice of approach depends on the goals set. If a goal is to analyse a situation in the team and the interaction between its members, then the best choice is the intertype analysis between members[clarification needed]
Socionics allocates 16 types of the relations — from most attractive and comfortable up to disputed. The understanding of a nature of these relations helps to solve a number of problems of the interpersonal relations, including aspects of psychological and sexual compatibility. The researches of married couples by Aleksandr Bukalov, Olga Karpenko, and Galina Chykyrysova, have shown that the family relations submit to the laws, which are opened by socionics. The study of socionic type allocation in casually selected married couples confirmed the main rules of the theory of intertype relations in socionics. So, the dual relations (full addition) make 45% and the intraquadral relations make 64% of investigated couples.
Nuclear power plants' securityEdit
Security management of dangerous chemical or nuclear enterprises requires special methods of recruitment and work. To provide high security level on nuclear power plants by optimizing the human factor defined a number of ergonomic factors which have an influence on a person in a modern management system: the intensity of work, time factor, isolation of workplace that causes tight interpersonal contacts; monotony of work; lack of physical activity; negative external influences (noise, vibration, etc.).
Each of these factors and especially their combination leads to extreme modes and related stresses (not to mention other circumstances that faced operational staff of plants). However, those approaches are difficult to implement because of financial and timing loss. Except factors caused by external operational activity there are many social stressors as well.
Social stressors may cause mistakes, but more often its provoking mistakes in situations, where they are the most likely to happen. So, a person who doesn't have clear understanding of his duties, or somebody who takes his work as a dangerous activity, will commit more mistakes while working in short supply than a person who is not stressed by social factors. In order to reduce this kind of stressor, on some plants, for example on Zaporizhia Nuclear Power Plant were implemented testing, which were conducting communication trainings and other socionics methods. Also socionics approaches are taught in terms of courses training staff reserve on Leningrad nuclear power plant.
Socionics principles implemented to security system of nuclear power plants are described in a textbook. It includes analysis of the social structure of the staff, the concept of which coincides with the notion of psychoinformative space of collectives in integral socionics. Socionics tools combined with psycho informational theory of relationships are using to describe various models of human interaction with complex technological processes that take place in enterprises and transport.
Pletuhina noted that the parent, trainer or teacher, who knows the theory of socionics, who also understands an idea of the "image of a socionics type" and who can determine the child's personality type with a sufficient degree of probability can use those opportunities of the individual approaches that socionics provides to raise and educate a child.
The role that socionics takes in the educational process is not limited to being a teacher's tool for the managing process. It is also a base for development and improving the educational system and for preparing staff. Teachers armed with socionics technology can consciously establish relationships with other people and increase efficiency of their pedagogical skills. Rational implementation of intertype relationships can push educational process to become more intensive and increase students' motivation.
Socionics is also researched practical methods and techniques dedicated to evaluation person's individual psychological values to prognoses professional success. Keneva, Marchenko, and Minaev argue that socionics might become a theoretical base for personal-oriented educational technologies.
Socionics in astronauticsEdit
In Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center which located in Star City, Russia socionics methods are successfully used since 1992 for training Russian astronauts and international astronauts' crews and preparing them to spaceflights. Interpersonal issues and effective collaboration are extremely important in extreme conditions while working in a close space and are vital for successful spaceflight. In Star City conducted number of science seminars based on socionics methods and person typology to training space crews. Problem of forming space crews by socionics methods was a central topic at the International conference on space researches, at the Space forum 2011 and at the conference "Piloted flights into Space", which were taken place in Star City and in The Russian Academy of Sciences, also these issues were taken a part in works of Doctor of medical science professor Bohdashevsky, Doctor of philosophy Bukalov A.V. and Doctor of philosophy Karpenko O.B.
Socionics methods appeared helpful for aviation due to the safety of flights, passengers and crew members. This reasons leads to development of such branch as aviation socionics, which is a part of training process for crew members of aircraft.
According to order of the Ministry of transport of Russian Federation Flight Standards Department approved a default application "Training of pilots in the field of human factor", which expects basic socionics knowledge not only among pilots and other crew members, but also prognosing interaction in air crews by socionics methods, including such topics: "Topic 5. Aviation socionics and its place in solving human factor": sources of aviation socionics. The doctrine of Jung's personality type. A. Augustinavichiute and sources of socionics. Current status of socionics science. Sociotypes and its classification. Intertype interaction. Socionic components of professional characteristics. Topic 6. "The problem of forming flight crew and other aviation groups with high collaboration in it": The document, which regulate the formation flight crews. Socionics approaches in forming teams: quadras and typology of "non-quadral" teams. Forming teams in the concept of pursepoful systems. Topic 7. "Forming effective teams based on socionics model": Fuzzy sets: terms and definitions. Socionics model of human being. Socionics model of a crew member. Crew members as a collective operator. Socionics characteristic of crew members. Evaluation of effective collaboration. Conditions to reach synergism. Socionics prognosis in evaluation crew members. Socionics model of intertype interactions. Socionics model of crew members and its evaluation. Using socionics model of intertype interactions to form effective team. Topic 8. "Problems in evaluation relationships "human-machine" ": evaluation of interaction within system "pilot-aircraft". Criteria of interactions' evaluating. Socionics aspects of pilot-aircraft interaction. Preventing pilot's mistakes by constructive and technical tools"
To improve interaction among crew members, specialists of Saint Petersburg University examined 2330 people by socionics methods, including students of St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, Russian State Pedagogical University of A.I. Herzen, St. Petersburg State University of Culture and Arts; aircrews of airlines: "Syberia", "Atlant-Soyuz Airlines", "Ural Airlines", "Lukoylavia", "Gazpromavia", "Tomsk Avia", "Enimex" (Estonia), "Air Kazakhstan", "AZAL", "Kazair West", "RusAir" and others; air traffic controllers from Moscow, Khabarovsk, Rostov-on-Don, Novokuznetsk, Magadan, Norilsk, Saratov, Omsk, Kemerovo, New Urengoy, Syktyvkar, Nalchik, Ust-UTA, Kolpasevo, Pechora, Evenkii, Yakutia and Sakhalin; professors from almost all flight academies of Russia; delegates from Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Estonia.
This data base represents result of 10 years of scientific work. In their researches authors are relying on fundamental works of the Kyiv School of Socionics, International Institute of Socionics, publications in journals "Socionics, mentology and personal psychology", "Management and staff: management psychology, socionics and sociology".
Experimental researches of National Aviation University and Kropyvnytskyi Flight Academy of National Aviation University of Ukraine showed that sociometric and socionics approaches are playing a great role in the working process of aviation specialists, especially in forming flight crews and dispatcher changes.
By system approach were defined socionic types of aviation professionals' personalities and level of their interaction of professional performing in small groups as an example of control changes.
According to the experimental results were obtained socionics and sociometric data of air traffic controllers and correlation analyses of its parameters, also was determined the connection's intensity between person's interaction levels. The practical values of this research is to develop automated module to determine individual characteristic of operators and to evaluate the effectiveness of socionics in the management of air traffic, particular in special cases of flight
Jung's psychological typesEdit
- Sensation – all perceptions by means of the sense organs
- Intuition – perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events
- Thinking (in socionics, Logic) – judgement of information based on reason
- Feeling (in socionics, Ethics) – judgement of information based on sentiment
In addition to these four types, Jung defines a polarity between introverted and extraverted personalities. This distinction is based on how people invest energy: either into the inner, subjective, psychical world (usually called Seele, soul, by Jung), or toward their outer, objective, physical world (including one's body).
By Jung's rules, 16 psychological types exist. But in his book "Psychological Types" he described in detail only 8, distinguished by the 8 possible dominant functions. Contrary to Socionics and MBTI, Jung did not conclude that the types had two introverted functions and two extroverted functions. He instead outlined that extroverted personality types had a Dominant extroverted function, an Auxiliary introverted function, and two Inferior introverted functions that are necessarily retarded.
Information metabolism elements (often confused with memetics)Edit
In socionics, Jung's cognitive functions are always either introverted (focused on refining quality) or extroverted (focused on increasing quantity), and are referred to as information metabolism elements (IM Elements). These are said to process information aspects. To understand what an information aspect is, it is necessary to understand information metabolism as Augustinavičiūtė understood it.
Augustinavičiūtė states that the human mind uses eight elements of information metabolism (mental functions) to perceive the world, and each of these eight elements reflect one particular aspect of objective reality. In her works she describes aspects of the world based on physical quantities such as potential and kinetic energy, space, time, and their properties.
Often, other socionists[who?] have equated these information elements with their definition and according to fundamental physical concepts as well (Matter-Time-Energy-Space) (N. Medvedev, V. Ermak). Matter is compared to Thinking, Energy to Feeling, Space to Sensing, and Time to Intuition. Given the division of aspects of the absolute between Extroverted ("black") and Introverted ("white"), being four times two, their number is eight.
The 8 socionics symbols ( ) were introduced by Augustinavičiūtė while working with Jung's typology[clarification needed] and remain the dominant method of denoting the functions and the corresponding information aspects that they process. Text-based notation systems also enjoy use online, such as Victor Gulenko's 8 Latin letters ('P' for Pragmatism, 'E' for Emotions, 'F' for Force, 'I' for Ideas, 'L' for Laws, 'R' for Relation, 'S' for Senses, and 'T' for Time, correspondingly). Among western enthusiasts, Myers-Briggs notation (Te, Fe, Se, Ne, Ti, Fi, Si, and Ni, correspondingly) is also popular.
The 16 typesEdit
Socionics divides people into 16 different types, called sociotypes. They are most commonly referred to by their two strongest functions, which in socionics are called the leading function (Jung's dominant) and the creative function (Jung's auxiliary). The creative function is opposite to the leading function in extraversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted logic (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extraverted, which means it must be either extraverted sensing or extraverted intuition.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė usually used names like sensory-logical introvert (SLI) to refer to the types. In SLI the leading function is introverted sensation and the creative function is extraverted logic. She also introduced the practice of referring to types by the name of a famous person of the type (although types of these persons are not universally agreed upon, with the old name Napoleon for the SEE being replaced by Caesar after being deemed an inaccurate type assignment). For example, she called the SLI Gabin and the SEI Dumas. Also sometimes names such as Craftsman or Mediator are used to express the social role of the type—a convention introduced by socionist Viktor Gulenko in 1995. Given the formal similarities present between Socionics and the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) abbreviations frequently used in English, some prefer to distinguish socionic type names from Myers–Briggs' names by writing the last letter (J or P) in lower case (for example, ENTp, ESFj)—a practice introduced by Sergei Ganin. This is because the relationship between socionics and Myers–Briggs and Keirseyan types is controversial.
Dmitri Lytov and Marianna Lytova state that "main spheres of application of socionics are almost the same as for the Myers–Briggs Type Theory", and that observed differences in correlation "represent characteristic stereotypes of the socionics and the Keirsey typology. Others state that MBTI and socionics "correlate in roughly 30% of cases," and that "there are many subtle differences".[clarification needed] J and P in Socionics and Myers–Briggs are completely different: in Myers–Briggs, J and P stands for the first extraverted function (J—extraverted thinking or feeling, P—extraverted sensing or intuition); in Socionics, J and P stands for the first function (J—rational (thinking and feeling), P—irrational (sensing and intuition)). This formal conversion is carried out in accordance with the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.
In dividing the socion according to the four Jungian dichotomies, from this is formed 16 socionic types. The following tables provide a list of types with the names most commonly used in socionics:
|Formal name||Type alias||Social role|
|ESTj||P1 S2 E3 T4 R5 I6 L7 F8||Logical Sensory Extravert (LSE)||Stierlitz||Administrator / Director|
|ENTj||P1 T2 E3 S4 R5 F6 L7 I8||Logical Intuitive Extravert (LIE)||Jack London||Enterpriser / Pioneer|
|ESFj||E1 S2 P3 T4 L5 I6 R7 F8||Ethical Sensory Extravert (ESE)||Hugo||Bonvivant / Enthusiast|
|ENFj||E1 T2 P3 S4 L5 F6 R7 I8||Ethical Intuitive Extravert (EIE)||Hamlet||Mentor / Actor|
|ESTp||F1 L2 I3 R4 T5 E6 S7 P8||Sensory Logical Extravert (SLE)||Zhukov||Legionnaire / Conqueror|
|ESFp||F1 R2 I3 L4 T5 P6 S7 E8||Sensory Ethical Extravert (SEE)||Napoleon||Politician / Ambassador|
|ENTp||I1 L2 F3 R4 S5 E6 T7 P8||Intuitive Logical Extravert (ILE)||Don Quixote||Seeker / Inventor|
|ENFp||I1 R2 F3 L4 S5 P6 T7 E8||Intuitive Ethical Extravert (IEE)||Huxley||Psychologist / Reporter|
|ISTp||S1 P2 T3 E4 I5 R6 F7 L8||Sensory Logical Introvert (SLI)||Gabin||Craftsman / Mechanic|
|INTp||T1 P2 S3 E4 F5 R6 I7 L8||Intuitive Logical Introvert (ILI)||Balzac||Critic / Scientist|
|ISFp||S1 E2 T3 P4 I5 L6 F7 R8||Sensory Ethical Introvert (SEI)||Dumas||Mediator / Peacemaker|
|INFp||T2 E2 S3 P4 F5 L6 I7 R8||Intuitive Ethical Introvert (IEI)||Yesenin||Lyricist / Romantic|
|ISTj||L1 F2 R3 I4 E5 T6 P7 S8||Logical Sensory Introvert (LSI)||Maxim Gorky||Inspector / Pragmatist|
|ISFj||R1 F2 L3 I4 P5 T6 E7 S8||Ethical Sensory Introvert (ESI)||Dreiser||Guardian / Conservator|
|INTj||L1 I2 R3 F4 E5 S6 P7 T8||Logical Intuitive Introvert (LII)||Robespierre||Analyst / Mastermind|
|INFj||R1 I2 L3 F4 P5 S6 E7 T8||Ethical Intuitive Introvert (EII)||Dostoyevsky||Humanist / Empath|
Among socionists[who?], the prevailing view is that sociotypes are inborn and genetically determined, although the content of different functions and dimensions may vary. Some socionists[who?] believe that sociotypes may temporarily change while in altered states of consciousness or under great stress.
Vladimir Ermak first introduced two important concepts of modern socionics further confirmed by Elena Udalova research. The first one is the growth dynamics which means that every horizontal block of two functions (see below) is filling in the certain age, from bottom to top, with the roughly 7-year interval, so that the lowest block is done before 7, the next is complete before 14, the weak part of the mental track is done before 21, and the top block finally leads after that. Due to this process, a child, or a teenager, may demonstrate faces of other sociotypes according to the active horizontal block. Besides, being introduced to the unknown people, or in stressful situations, people again may demonstrate adaptive or protective behaviour directed by the appropriate blocks (see below).
The second concept is so called functional dimensions. It was introduced by Aleksandr Bukalov. He defined the first dimension as the personal experience (Ex), the second dimension as social norms (Nr), the third dimension as the current situation (St), and the fourth dimension as the globality, or time perspective (Tm). This concept is useful because it best illustrates the difference in cognitive power (imagine measuring capability of 2D v. 3D measuring tool) and roughly describes abilities of each function to process and generate information. Still, definitions of dimensions require further research and clarification. For example, the vulnerable function tends to lose knowledge which haven't been used.
|Relation||Base 16||Base 10||Base 2||Type|
Since socionics is mathematically Base-16 and also a psychology of personality in the same way as the typology of Carl Jung and Myers–Briggs, it shares a similar degree of mathematical consistency, while enduring the same serious shortcomings in the experimental justification of these theories.
Taking this, socionics also differs from other typologies in that it also includes a complementary Base-16 relationship set, with the intent of penning to paper the key social dynamic traits between grouped combinations of socionic types. Therefore, socionics could be considered to be within the realm of the science of social dynamics, intended to describe social behavior according to mathematical applications of Base-16, group theory, set logic, and reduction of the Gulenko-Jungian notation for socionics types to hexadecimal and Base-2 bitwise operation. While this mathematical approach is strictly theoretical and has been criticized for lack of empirical testing, systems theory has been the tool of socionics theorist, such as Gregory Reinin to derive theorical dichotomies within socionics theory. In 1985 Aušra Augustinavičiūtė acknowledged the mathematical theories of Reinin and wrote a book titled The Theory of Reinin's Traits to describe the mathematical processes of socionics theory. Mathematical methods have been a standard part of socionics theory since this time.
Studies of Elena Udalova show that at least three of Reinin's Traits are distinguishable and can be used for detection of a sociotype. Those include: statics/dynamics (having appropriate functions in their mental track), questims/declatims (tending to raise questions or declare opinions), and aristocrats/democrats (understanding inequality or equality of people). Not all names of Reinin's Traits reflect their actual meaning very well, but they were defined historically and now seem to be fixed.
The methodology of deriving socionic relationships from two socionic types is similar to the enumeration of 16 possible boolean algebraic functions from two binary output and input variable types, with truth tables and during construction of logic gates in electronics.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė developed a model of personality called Model A, which includes eight functional positions. Every human has every function, and can perceive and process any available information aspect by them; however, depending on where the metabolizing function for an aspect is located in a type's functional ordering, the actual quality of the produced information and the means of its use may vary. The following diagram is an example of the positions of the functions in Model A (numbers of functions are in Viktor Gulenko's notation). The numbering of the functions is semi-arbitrary, and is intended to represent on the one hand the smooth flow of information from function 1 to 4 (the so-called "mental" track), and the mirroring of that flow by the other four. (the so-called "vital" track)
For example, the ILE type has the following version of Model A:
Nature of functional positionsEdit
- Function 1 – leading, program, primary, base, or dominant function. This is the strongest conscious function, and the most utilized function of the psyche. A person's outlook and role in life is largely determined by the nature of this function. One is generally very confident in the use of this function, and may defend it when challenged. According to Bukalov, this is 4D function (Ex, No, Si, Ti).
- Function 2 – creative or secondary function, is second in influence only to the dominant function. It assists the dominant function in achieving its essence. One is generally less confident with the use of this function than with his dominant function. As a result, the creative function is sometimes less instrumental when a person is challenged or threatened, or when dealing with new and complex tasks and data. According to Bukalov, this function is 3D (Ex, No, Si), or time invariant, because it produces something new which may never exist before.
- Function 3 – role function, is a weak but conscious function. One generally tries to be at least adequate in areas where use of the role function is necessary. Moreover, one generally uses it in situations of social adaptation (e.g. introducing themselves to an unknown person). However, generally one has very little control or confidence over the role function, and criticism is painfully acknowledged with respect to it. Tactful assistance is required from someone else's strong function to overcome the problems associated with the role function. According to Bukalov, this function is 2D (Ex, No), or situation invariant, because it cannot adapt to the unusual situation beyond social norms.
- Function 4 – the vulnerable function, or place of least resistance, is a weak and conscious function, in addition to being the weakest function of the psyche. One painfully perceives his complete inability to use this function, and reacts negatively to its imposition upon him. Tactful assistance is required from someone else's strong function (preferably the Function 8) to overcome the problems associated with this function. According to Bukalov, this function is single dimensional, i.e. only personal experience is collected here, and it cannot be adapted even to the social norms.
- Function 5 – suggestive function, or dual-seeking function, is a weak and unconscious function which is largely lacked. One requires assistance from somebody confident in this function in order to overcome the difficulties it presents. When left to one's own devices, the suggestive function goes unnoticed. According to Bukalov, this function is single dimensional, too, and one must be careful not to become subject of manipulation because of misuse of this function. Discussing aspects of this function makes person happy and trustful. (That's why it's called suggestive.)
- Function 6 – mobilizing function. This is a weak and unconscious function which one often understands poorly. Nonetheless, this function has a strong influence over one's actions. Individuals requires assistance from someone who uses it confidently in order to understand it. Often an individual is only aware that they are totally unaware of how to use this function. At the same time, it's 2D function, so it's capable of collecting a number of easy receipts for daily needs. Being successful in aspects of this function makes one happy and motivated. (That's why it's called mobilizing.)
- Function 7 – observant, or ignoring, or restricting function, the function of personal knowledge. This is a strong (3D according to Bukalov) but unconscious function. One generally has a good grasp of this function, but attempts to limit its use considerably. Individuals will disregard this function when an argument calls for restraint or when it will be difficult to indulge in its essence. At the same time one uses this function to restrict somebody's intervention to their privacy or territory, or other unsolicited interaction.
- Function 8 – demonstrative or background function. This function is so deeply rooted into the psyche that one is usually not consciously aware of its existence or utilization. It is as strong as the leading function (4D according to Bukalov) and it tends to act silently to protect the weakest point of the dual person (see below). It can sound in situations of extreme irritation when the restricting function fails to break the unsolicited influence.
Note that Model A provides the justification for the type names. The socionic name is leading-creative-extra/introversion. For example, the ILE is intuitive leading with a logical creative function and is extroverted. The ESI has leading ethics with secondary sensing and is introverted.
Blocks of the psycheEdit
According to Augustinavičiūtė, the functions are paired in four blocks: the ego block, the super-ego block, the id block, and the super-id block. The ego block contains the leading (1) and creative (2) functions, the super-ego block contains the role (3) and vulnerable (4) functions, the super-id block contains the suggestive (5) and mobilizing (6) functions, while the id block contains the observant (7) and demonstrative (8) functions.
The functions within the ego and super-ego blocks are said to be conscious (or "mental") functions, while those within the id and super-id blocks are said to be unconscious (or "vital"). The functions residing within the ego and id blocks are strong functions which are used naturally and well, while the functions of the super-ego and super-id blocks are weak functions and are used with difficulty. (In addition, using super-ego functions is stressful.)
The 16 types in Model AEdit
Socionics postulates that the way information is communicated between different types results in different interaction styles, called intertype relations. Each intertype relation has its bad and good qualities, though duality is generally considered to be the most psychologically comfortable as a long-term relationship. In total there are 16 relationship roles for each type (14 when not counting the split roles in the supervision and benefit relationship). All relations beside Request and Supervision are symmetric. Request and Supervision relations are asymmetric and have 2 roles: Request - Requester and Request recipient, Supervision - Supervisor and Supervisee. Each cell in the table shows who the type in the left column is to the type in the top row.
Key: Du - Duality; Ac - Activation; Sd - Semi-duality; Mg - Mirage; Mr - Mirror; Id - Identity; Cp - Cooperation; Cg - Congenerity; QI - Quasi-Identity; Ex - Extinguishment; Se - Super-ego; Cf - Conflict; Rq+ - Requester; Rq- - Request recipient; Sv+ - Supervisor; Sv- - Supervisee
Duality is a fundamental concept in Socionics. Dual relations are characterized by mutual benefit and support, and are generally viewed as optimal for friendship, intimacy, and marriage (though sociotype is not the only factor influencing this). The eight dual pairs are as follows:
In dual relations, the leading function of one partner is the suggestive function of the other, and the creative function of one partner is the mobilizing function of the other. Thus, the ego functions (the strongest and most socialized) of each correspond to the super-id functions of the other (the area where the person needs and expects assistance). Likewise, the super-ego block of one corresponds to the id of the other. In this relation, just 1 of 4 Jungian dichotomies is shared—rationality/irrationality. Duality interaction is generally rewarding and satisfying for both parties, providing inspiration and support. Duality is a central theme of the philosophy of socionics study: Augusta often stated her position that a person who is estranged from contact with a dual partner must cope by unnaturally distorting their personality, a phenomenon called "type masking". Relationships with conflictor types are cited as particularly troublesome: it is not uncommon for a person in a close relationship with their conflictor to develop an acute neurotic condition.
The duality system is demonstrated in the following diagram, which details function relationships between two duals, an ILE and an SEI:
Activation relations occur between two members of the same quadra who share either introversion or extraversion. This relations can resemble duality since the super-id functions are both present in the ego functions of the other partner. However, these relations are somewhat less fulfilling than dual relations. Each partner's dominant function is the others mobilizing function. Activation relationships are often romantic if both partners find each other attractive. These relationships are often very easy to start, as both partners share either extraversion or introversion. Introvert activation relationships appear reserved, while extravert activation relationships appear hectic.
Relations of semi-duality are similar to relations of duality. Semi-duality occurs between partners who lead (by leading function) each other's dual-seeking (5th) functions but lack each other's creative functions (to assist their mobilizing functions). As a result, both partners often perceive elements of duality from the relationship but feel the other partner is misplacing the correct emphasis; as semi-duals will be able to help their partners with their dual seeking functions but both have the least confidence in the same area of the psyche (thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition).
Relationships of semi-duality can become very close for moderate periods of time until correspondence is broken indefinitely. These relationships often begin, or rekindle because of mutual interests or friends held in common.
Mirage relations occur between partners whose creative functions are the other partners' mobilizing functions, but whose dual seeking (5th) functions are the other partners' role functions.
Relationships of mirage often become quite close and are easy to begin because both individuals are able to communicate effectively with one another because partners share a preference for thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting.
Mirror relations occur between types who share the same ego functions, yet place different emphases on them; the dominant function of one partner is the creative function of the other. Mirror relations are characterized by similar actions and motivations between partners, and mutual understanding. Interactions usually result in a drawn out dialogue, as each partner seems to keep opening up avenues of thought which the other needs to now clarify verbally.
An important source of dissension between mirror types is the opposing between Ej and Ip, or between Ep and Ij. Ejs find the passive, unstable Ip behavior to be a severe hindrance in getting things done, while Ips find the restless and proactive actions of Ej types paranoid and stifling. Similarly, Ep types find Ij types to be somewhat dull and boring, while Ij types see Ep types as wildly unpredictable and impetuous.
Relations of Identity describe relations between two individuals of the same type. Often, both partners will have similar perceptions of situations and problems, and will take similar actions. Partners usually understand the motivations behind the other's actions. A relationship between identity partners is characterized by mutual understanding, self-development, and learning. Each is interested in the other's ideas, and sees their value. For some types, though, such relations can soon become depleted and uninteresting, once informational potentials have been reached; since, broadly, there seems to be nothing more to discuss.
Cooperation relations occur between partners who have the same creative function but differing dominant functions. As a result, partners may often perform similar activities or have similar fields of interest, but often do not understand each other's internal motivations. Partners will often approach their related fields with vastly different agendas and will generate conflict when working as a team. These relations become formal and business like as to avoid open debate and conflict.
People in congenerity (aka kindred, or comparative) relations have the same dominant function but different creative functions. They often see each other as interesting people and can see each other’s motivations, but interact in ways the other partner is unskilled or uninterested; often similar to mirror relationships where ideas are communicated through drawn out dialog; easy to begin because both partners share a similar type of intelligence and easy communication.
Relations of Quasi-identity are characterized by mutual misunderstanding. One partner's ego functions are the other partner's demonstrative and observant functions. As quasi-identicals have opposite functions, they will often have similar interests (id block and ego blocks contain the same functions) and become involved in similar activities, but they rarely understand each other's motivations or ideas.
Quasi-Identity partners often identify themselves as being very different from the partner. Outside observers often have trouble seeing the differences that the individual sees between themselves and the partner. At the same time, Quasi-Identity relations are most productive to assess a new idea and find its weak points since quasi-identicals have an expert view from the other side.
Extinguishment relations occur between types confident in the same area of the psyche but who place different emphases on each function. These relations often consist of similar lifestyles but differing thought processes. Partners will have similar interests and areas of expertise, and have little trouble communicating with one another.
Still, misunderstanding and conflict arise when partners come to vastly different conclusions about specific ideas or events.
Super-ego relations occur between types whose ego functions are the other partners' super-ego functions. Super-ego relations are generally characterized by differing values, discomfort, and mutual misunderstanding.
Partners in a super-ego relationship are often fascinated or terrified by their partners lack of similarity to themselves. Super-ego partners are constantly aware of their total opposition in values to the partner. Outside observers are often similarly aware.
Relations of Conflict are, unsurprisingly, characterized by constantly escalating conflict. Conflictors are the types with the most dissimilar values, and they rarely understand anything regarding each other's motivations or lifestyles. Conflictors may take for granted as truths what their partners may dismiss as absurd. Sometimes they understand each other so little that the conflict itself is not well understood, yet it prevails under the surface, discomfiting both partners to no end. Conflictors also are of opposite temperaments, which is a source of irritation to both partners. Conflictors are usually rather interesting for each other, but also very tiresome.
Relations of request are asymmetrical relations; one type requests another. The request recipient's dual seeking function is the requester's creative function, and as a result the request recipient often takes an interest in the requester. However, the requester's dual seeking function is the request recipient's place of least resistance, and the requester finds the request recipient a highly uninteresting person. Relations of request frequently end with the departure of the requester.
Relations of supervision are asymmetrical; one type supervises another. Relations of supervision are characterized by the supervisor's attempt to introduce his base function into the supervisee's life. The supervisor often perceives the supervisee as an interesting person and understands the supervisee's lifestyle, since the supervisor's creative function is the supervisee's base function. Nonetheless, the supervisee is often on the defensive since the supervisor's base function is the supervisee's point of least resistance (the function most vulnerable to criticism). The supervisee often perceives the supervisor to be the evil incarnate, while the bewildered supervisor wonders why the supervisee reacts so poorly to his objective and benevolent assistance.
Groups of typesEdit
A quadra is a group of four types in which only identity, dual, activity, and mirror relations occur. Quadras are distinguished by offering the greatest degree of psychological comfort among all groups containing four types. The feeling of comfort and harmony produced by the quadra is due to the fact that all types in the quadra seek to give expression to the shared set of information elements in their ego and super-id blocks and to de-emphasize the information elements in their super-ego and id blocks.
Similar to the harmony of types within the same quadra, opposing forces also exist. If one were to put the four quadras in a circle, alpha-beta-gamma-delta, the two quadras facing each other would be opposing quadras and consist entirely of quasi-identical, conflictor, super-ego, and extinguishment relations. A person surrounded by people of the opposing type will often feel uneasy and out of place, due to the fact that all the people around them either lead with or seek for their weakest function. That type of interaction is often the basis for inherent misunderstandings between seemingly similar people (as in the case of the quasi-identical) or two people who seem to offend each other at every turn (often found in conflicting relations).
Clubs are groups that reflect spheres of activity. There are 4 clubs, each with 4 types:
- Pragmatists (ST): ESTp, ESTj, ISTp, ISTj; or SLE, LSE, SLI, LSI
- Researchers (NT): ENTp, ENTj, INTp, INTj; or ILE, LIE, ILI, LII
- Socials (SF): ESFp, ESFj, ISFp, ISFj; or SEE, ESE, SEI, ESI
- Humanitarians (NF): ENFp, ENFj, INFp, INFj; or IEE, EIE, IEI, EII
- Extraverted Rational Temperament (Ej). Extraverted rational types, namely the ESE, EIE, LIE, and LSE, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior. (close to choleric temperament)
- Introverted Rational Temperament (Ij). Introverted rational types, namely the LII, LSI, ESI, and EII, are characterized by slow and methodical behavior. (close to phlegmatic temperament)
- Extraverted Irrational Temperament (Ep). Extraverted irrational types, namely the ILE, SLE, SEE, and IEE, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior. (close to sanguine temperament)
- Introverted Irrational Temperament (Ip). Introverted irrational types, namely the SEI, IEI, ILI, and SLI, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels. (close to melancholic temperament)
Beside Gulenko's, there are several other theories of correlation between temperaments and socionic types, although almost all socionic[who?] authors support Eysenck's view that temperaments do correlate with the E/I factor.
In addition to Model A, two other models are in wide use by socionists. Model B, created by Aleksandr Bukalov, is designed to reconcile the socionics standpoint with the so-called "Model J" (Jung's outlook) and uses sixteen functional components instead of eight. The model uses the same eight functions as Model A, but further differentiates them by attributing positive and negative polarities to each. Model B also refines Model A's strong/weak concept by attributing vectors of dimensionality to each function. This allows it to describe with precision why some functions are relied on more than others.
The four dimensions are
- Globality (also thought of as "time")
- Cultural normatives
Experience is the lowest dimension; globality is the highest. The importance of the dimension system lies in its clarification of the differences between strong and weak functions. Although any type may learn information specific to any function with adequate study, only the strong functions have the vectors of situation which are required to create new knowledge. The types are thus reliant on each other in their search for understanding.
In 2006, Viktor Talanov sought to identify cognitive correlates for functions. Recent advances in cognitive psychology have facilitated understanding of information processing at the cognitive level. Introversion has been correlated to high brain-blood levels; extroversion to lower levels. Viktor Talanov has proposed to identify the processing centers of the four Jungian functions—logic, ethics, intuition, and sensing—as a first step towards demonstrating the existence of the function types. (called simply "functions" in socionics).
Methods of type identificationEdit
- Analysis of behavior, interview (including special questionnaires), biography
- Analysis of nonverbal behavior (mimic, gestures, plastique, etc.)
Nonverbal behavior (also called image method) is a particularly popular method popularized by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, but rarely used as basic method, more as auxiliary. It is based on analysis of impressions from nonverbal behavior and associating them with features of types. Often the image method is used to create an initial hypothesis about a person's type, which is tested against more reliable methods.
Development of socionicsEdit
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Currently socionics has wide academic recognition and is taught in over 150 universities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Romania. Its methods are used in a variety of humanitarian and technical disciplines, as evidenced by more than 800 doctoral theses. International Institute of Socionics and various universities have been performed numerous experiments to test the theory of socionics, which was attended by over 10,000 people.[clarification needed]
Socionics has been brought up at conferences on psychology, where its practical applications were discussed. For instance, in 2005, socionics was discussed at the British and East European Psychology Meeting in Kraków, Poland, which was attended by British, American and Eastern European psychologists. Psychologist Rosemary Nodder from the University of Hertfordshire represented socionics for the event.
The opinion of scientific community about socionics is not uniform. Socionic analysts and theorists see it as "the fusion of science and technology that makes it possible to predict behavior and activity style of an individual, group of people, and society as a whole" and "the science that discovered the laws of human compatibility". Psychophysiologist Sergey Bogomaz considered socionics post-Jungian typology which is more promising than MBTI due to the inclusion of greater number of typological features and the formulation of prerequisites for the study of intertype relationships. He have found the theory of intertype relationships a valuable contribution of Aušra Augustinavičiūtė to Jungian psychology.  In later publications Bogomaz used socionics and Jungian typology for psychological research 
Philosopher L. M. Monastirsky  identified the use of speculative categories as the first shortcoming of socionics. Secondly, he stated that it lacks clearly defined typing method and each socionics school defines methods of their own. At the same time Monastirsky, recognizing the potential of socionics, proposed to turn to the concept of a socionic type for carrying out some research in the field of the methodology of science. An important issue in the field of socionics is the problem of convergence between type diagnoses of different analysts. Vladimir Ermak showed that ignorance of model A of the type of information metabolism leads to numerous mistakes in the definition of a socionic type. In the early 2000s, socionic analysts to develop more rigorous approaches to type diagnosis.
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"Российской Академией естественных наук (РАЕН) соционика признана открытием, а ее создатель - Аушра Аугустинавичюте - награждена дипломом об открытии и медалью им.П.Л.Капицы."
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"Socionics was developed in the 1970s and 1980s mainly by the Lithuanian researcher Ausˇra Augustinavicˇiute. The name 'socionics' is derived from the word 'society, since Augustinavicˇiute believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics. The system of socionics is in several respects similar to the MBTI; however, whereas the latter is dominantly used in the USA and Western Europe, the former is mainly used in Russia and Eastern Europe. For more information, the reader is referred to the website of the International Institute of Socionics and to several scientific journals edited by this institution<http://socionic.info/en/esocjur.html#top>. Despite of several similarities there are also important differences. For instance, the MBTI is based on questionnaires with so-called forced-choice questions. Forced choice means that the individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question. Obviously, such tests are self-referential. That means they are based on judgments of persons about themselves. Socionics rejects the use of such questionnaires and is based on interviews and direct observation of certain aspects of human behavior instead. However, if personality tests are well constructed and their questions are answered properly, we expect results that often make sense. For that reason, we do not reject test questions principally, but we have to take into account their self-referential character. Another difference relates to the fact that socionics tries to understand Jung's intuitive system and to provide a deeper explanation for it, mainly in terms of informational metabolism (Kepinski & PZWL, 1972). Further, socionics is not so much a theory of personalities per se, but much more a theory of type relations providing an analysis of the relationships that arise as a consequence of the interaction of people with different personalities."
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- The Applied Socionics School, branch in Krasnodar (rus)
- The School of System Socionics (en) Archived April 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Примерная основная образовательная программа высшего профессионального образования. Направление подготовки 040100 "Социология" Archived 2012-11-24 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Approximate basic educational program of higher education. Direction of training 040100 "Sociology"
- Svetlana Ivanova, PhD in Education, senior researcher laboratory of innovatics in pedagogical education, Institute of educational management of Russian Science Academy, the branch in St. PetersburgPSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS // MODERN EUROPEAN RESEARCHES, №6, 2015.
Let's notice that the relation of psychologists to socionics is ambiguous. As it is noted by A.V. Bukalov and O.B. Karpenko, wide circulation of socionics as scientific direction is confirmed by that for the last 15 years socionics ideas and methods are used approximately in 800 theses according to all sections of the humanities and in a number of technical sciences. Now socionics is taught in more than 150 universities of Russia, Ukraine, the CIS countries and countries of the European Union.
- Socionics in educational process: some universities, programs, curricula
- Струкчинская Е.М., Струкчинский С.З., Разгоняева Е.В. Соционика. Учебное пособие Алт. гос. техн. ун-т, БТИ. - Бийск : Изд-во Алт. гос. техн. ун-та, 2011. - 183 с. ISBN 978-5-9257-0205-5 Рекомендовано Сибирским региональным учебно-методическим центром высшего профессионального образования для межвузовского использования в качестве учебного пособия для студентов специальности 080401 «Товароведение и экспертиза товаров»
- Антошкин В.Н., Адиев М.Я., Гайбадуллин В.Р. и др. Соционика и социоанализ : учеб. пособие. - Уфа: БашГУ, 2003. - 216 с. ISBN 5-7477-0906-2
- Гафаров А.А., Петрушин С.В. История и соционика. Метод социоанализа психологии ист. персонажей : Справ.-метод. пособие / Казан. гос. ун-т, Каф. полит. истории, Каф. психологии. – Казань.: КГУ, 1996.
- Орловская Л.М., Орловский И.О. «Основы соционики». Был успешно апробирован и является основным учебно-методическим пособием по курсу "Основы соционики" для студентов психологов и менеджеров Красноярского государственного педагогического университета
- Психология: учебник/ В.В. Никандров . – М.: Волтерс Клувер, 2009. - 1008 с. ISBN 978-5-466-00413-7 Рекомендовано к изданию в качестве учебника редакционно-издательским советом факультета психологии Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета
- Арутюнов В. Х., Мішин В. М., Свінціцький В. М. Методологія соціально-економічного пізнання Archived March 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Навч. посібник. — К.: КНЕУ, 2005. — 353 c. ((in Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: Arutyunov V. H., Mishin V. M. and Svintsitskyi V. M. Methodology of socio-economic knowledge)
- Alexandrova N. H., Boyadjieva N., Sapundzhieva K., Kolarova C. D. "Социониката в социалната сфера"- Sofia Univ.izd. St. Kliment Ohridski, 2004. - 149 p. ISBN 954-07-1876-7
- László-Kuţiuk M. Ghid de autocunoasţere. Elemente de socionică. - Bucureşti, 2000. ISBN 973-97141-5-3.
- Суртаева Н. Н., Иванова О. Н.Педагогическая соционика и проблемы конфликтных взаимодействий. — СПб. ИОВ РАО, 2002. — 135 с. ISBN 5-258-00021-4 (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Surtaeva N. N., Ivanova O. N. Educational socionics and problems of conflict interactions
- Федорова В.К. Использование педагогической соционики в решении конфликтных взаимодействий субъектов образовательного процесса Автореферат дисс. канд. пед. наук. — Омск, 1998. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Fedorova V. K. Using Educational Socionics in resolving conflict interactions in educational process. - Summary of the thesises candidate. ped. sciences. - Omsk, 1998.)
- Антошкин В. Н. Оптимизация управления системой коммуникативной деятельности в социальной работе (2004). (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Antoshkin V. N. Optimization of system management communication activity in social work
- Ариничева Ольга Викторовна. Совершенствование методов управления ресурсами системы "экипаж - воздушное судно" путем снижения отрицательного влияния человеческого фактора на безопасность полетов : диссертация ... кандидата технических наук : 05.22.14 / Ариничева Ольга Викторовна; [Место защиты: С.-Пет. гос. ун-т граждан. авиации]. - Санкт-Петербург, 2008. - 256 с. : ил. РГБ ОД, 61:08-5/858 Socionics application in Aviation
- Типовая учебная программа по дисциплине: «Подготовка авиационного персонала в области человеческого фактора» ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Model curriculum for the discipline: Flight Crew Training in the field of human factors)
- Грачев В. И. Библиотечная соционика — новое направление изучения библиотечной жизни // Научные и технические библиотеки. — 1993. — № 7. — С.19-20.((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Grachev V. I. Library socionics - a new direction of studying the life of the library // Scientific and technical libraries. - 1993. - № 7. - P.19-20.)
- Исаева Е.Н. Перспективы соционики в библиотечном менеджменте // Московский государственный университет культуры и искусств. — М., 1999—2008. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Isayeva E. N. Perspectives of Socionics in Library Management // Moscow State University of Culture and Arts. - M., 1999-2008.)
- Гуленко В. В., Тыщенко В. П. Юнг в школе. Соционика — межвозрастной педагогике. — Новосибирск: изд-во Новосибирского университета, 1997. — 268 с. ISBN 5-89441-014-2. (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Gulenko V. V. and Tyshchenko V. P. Socionics to between-age pedagogy. - Novosibirsk: Publishing House of Novosibirsk State University, 1997. - 268 p.
- Богданова І.М. Шляхи вдосконалення професійної підготовки майбутніх учителів // Наукa і освіта. — 2011. — № 4. — Ч. 1. — С. 34-36. ((in Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: Bogdanova I. M. The ways to improve the training of future teachers // Science and education. - 2011. - № 4. - Part 1. - Pp. 34-36.)
- Бобков В. В. Дифференцированный подход к обучению Archived 2013-12-25 at the Wayback Machine: психо-информационная точка зрения. Часть 1 // Электронный научный журнал «Исследовано в России». — 2006. — С. 371—400.((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Bobkov V. V. A differentiated approach to teaching: psycho-informational point of view. Part 1 // Electronic Scientific Journal "Investigated in Russia". - 2006. - Pp. 371-400.)
- Иванов Ю. В. Деловая соционика — М.: Бизнес-школа «Интел-Синтез», 2001. — 184 с. — (Библиотека журнала «Управление персоналом»). ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Ivanov Ju. V. Business socionics - Moscow Business School "Intel-Synthesis", 2001. - 184 p. - (Library of the "Personnel Management" Journal). )
- Измайлова М. А. Психология рекламной деятельности. Практическое пособие. — М. ИТК «Дашков и К», 2009. ISBN 978-5-394-00261-8. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Izmailova M. A. Psychology of advertising. Practical Guide. - Moskow, 2009.)
- Киселева Е.С. Роль и значение потребителя в системе маркетинга и способы управления поведением на основе соционики // Известия Томского политехнического университета. — 2008. — № 6. — Т. 312. — С. 59-64.((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Kiseleva E. S. The role and importance of the consumer in the marketing system and ways of control consumer's behavior on the basis of socionics // Proceedings of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. - 2008. - № 6. - Vol. 312. - P. 59-64.)
- Ласло-Куцюк М. Ключ до белетристики. — Бухарест: Мустанг, 2002. — 291 с. ISBN 973-99400-6-4. ((in Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: László-Kuţiuk M. The key to fiction. - Bucureşti: Mustang, 2002.)
- Комиссарова Л. М. Лингвосоционическая методология изучения языковой личности в русском языке. Автореф. дис. на соиск. учен. степ. канд. филол. наук — Барнаул: Изд-во АГУ, 2002. — 23 с. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Komissarova L. M. Linguistic-socionic methodology of study of language personality in the Russian language.)
- Хачмафова З.Р. Лексико-тематическая группа «чувство» в лексиконе современной женской прозы. // Вестник Адыгейского государственного университета. — 2009. — № 1. (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Hachmafova Z. R. Lexical-thematic group "feeling" in the lexicon of contemporary women's prose. // Bulletin of Adyghe State University. - 2009. - № 1.
- Голев Н. Д., Кузнецова А. В. Лингвосоционическое моделирование экстравертного и интровертного типов языковой личности // Вестник КемГУ. Филология. — 2009. — № 3. — С. 95-98. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Golev N. D. and Kuznetsova A. V. Linguistic-socionic modeling of extraverted and introverted types of language personality)
- Залогина Е.М. Языковая личность: лингвистический и психологический аспекты: На материале романа «Бесы» и «Дневника писателя» Ф.М. Достоевского: Автореферат дисс. … канд. филол. наук. — М., 2005. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Zalogina E. M. Language personality: linguistic and psychological aspects: based on the novel "Demons" and "Diary of a Writer" by F. M. Dostoevsky.)
- Букалов Г.К., Корабельников Р.В. Основы поиска новых методов повышения износостойкости рабочих органов текстильных машин. — Кострома: Изд-во КТГУ, 2001. — 126 с. ISBN 5-8285-0013-9. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Bukalov G.K., Korabelnikov R.V. Basics of search for new methods for increasing the wear resistance of the working body of textile machines. - Kostroma, 2001.)
- Букалов А.В. Интегральная соционика. Типы коллективов, наций, государств. Этносоционика. // Соционика, ментология и психология личности. — 1998. — № 5. — С. 13-17. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Bukalov A.B. Integral Socionics. Types of groups, nations and states. Ethnosocionics. // Socionics, mentology and personality psychology. - 1998. - № 5. - Pp. 13-17.)
- Международный институт соционики (2005-06-26). "Соционика: иностранные публикации по соционике". Socionic.info. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- "Наукова періодика України - НБУВ Національна бібліотека України імені В. І. Вернадського". Nbuv.gov.ua. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Bukalov A.V., International Institute of Socionics (1991-08-21). "Socionics: humanitarian, social, political and information intellectual technologies of the XXI century". Socionic.info. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- International Institute of Socionics. "Socionics - International Institute of Socionics". Socionic.info. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- [Bukalov A.V., Karpenko O.B. Socionics as an academic scientific discipline. http://socionics.socionic.info/ej/soc_13_1.html]
- International Institute of Socionics. "Issue 2/2013 of the 'Socionics, Mentology and Personality Psychology' journal". Socionics.socionic.info. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- International Institute of Socionics. "Issue 3/2013 of the 'Socionics, Mentology and Personality Psychology' journal". Socionics.socionic.info. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Bukalov A.V., Karpenko O.B., Chykyrysova G.V. Effective Management and Staff Consultation with the use of Socionics Technologies // Proc. conf. of the British and East European Psychology Group "Psychology in the new Europe: methodology and funding". - Kraków, 2005. - P. 28. http://socionic.info/soctech.html#top
- Hulenko V.V. Management in effective team. Socionics and socioanalyses for managers. - Novosybirsk, 1995. – 192 p.
- Vice-president of Deutsche Bank Andrey Pluzhnikov
"In this case it is really important to recall for socionics and related fields…it's accessible methodology that helps to determine a person's type through numerous binary features. For example, it helps to understand is he an extrovert or an introvert, is he better in working with details and facts or he has more intuitive mind, is he able to finish his work or he is easy involved in a new activity. By creating this profile we can evaluate does the specific person is able to handle the exact task and only after that we have a look on his certificates and working experience. That's how we are working in Deutsche Bank"
- Ivanov Y.V. Business socionics. 2nd ed., Rev. and add. – Moscow, Magazine: HR Management, 2004. - 192 с. - ISBN 5-95630-011-6.
Recommendation: Recommended for students taking course of organizational behavior staff, teachers and specialists in field of staff management. Annotation, quote: Book dedicated to one of the most new and prospective areas in organizational psychology – socionics. Book is designed to assess the base criterion for evaluation individual-psychological and personal qualities in order to prognosis professional success of the person, it reflects two-years experience of using socionics model in evaluating staff at enterprises of company "Russian Aluminum"
- Silin A.N. Social management: Dictionary-Handbook: Textbook. - Moscow, 2009. - 176 с.
Socionics is devoted to the study of how people interact with each other, compatibility of their sustainable types of thinking and behavior (sociotype) and patterns of relationships (information metabolism) between different sociotypes. Socionics as a new science derives a great deal from psychology, sociology, philosophy within social management. Carl Gustav Jung considered to be a forerunner of socionics and Aušra Augustinavičiūtė developed it to a new science in the early 1970s Socionics helps to define person's type and to prognoses relationships with other sociotypes (16 sociotypes, that formed from different combinations of extroverts and introverts, rationalists and irrationalists, logical, ethical, sensory or intuitive types). Different tools are used to define sociotypes, this involves observing and testing based on well-known test methods as MBTI, Buns, semantic differential. In recent years socionics tools are widely applied by Russian companies to recruitment
- A.V.Malyshevsky, I.A. Parfenov. "Using socionics models for control and scheduling in the sphere of aircraft// Scientific Journal of the Moscow Technical State University of Civil Aviation, №154, 2010. http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=15236207
- Hurevych M.M., Kahanov V.Sh., Kondratiev O.I., Lebedev V.M., Mikhalkevych V.N., Morozov V.V., Nesterov V.N., Radomsky V.M. Engineering Small Business: Research publication. - M.; Samara Agrokonsalt,1998. — 348 p. - ISBN 5-89274-007-2
About authors: Oleh Kondratiev – specialist of refining NK "YUKOS", PhD. chem. Sciences. Author of more than 40 scientific papers and publications. He prepared for edition textbook "Socio-psychological management on the basis of socionics."
- "Kryzhko V. V. "Theory and practice of management education". - Kyiv, Ukraine Education, 2005. - Reviewers: N.L.Kolominskyy, Doctor of Psychology, Professor; M.I.Pryhodko, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor
Quote: socionics is the science that treats people as bearers of certain types of information metabolism, that interacting with each other basing on social laws.
- Khodakivskiy E.I., Bohoyavlenska Y. V., Grabar T.P. Psychology of Management. Textbook. 3rd ed. revised. and add. / Edited by Doctor of Economics, Professor Khodakivskiy Y. I. – Kyiv, 2011. - 664 p.
- Krotov N. V., Clapper E. V. "Personnel Management: Textbook. - Moscow: Finance and Statistics, 2006. - 317 p.- ISBN 5-279-02899-1
- Lukashevich N.P.' Theory and practice of self-management. Textbook. - Kyiv, 1999. - 360 p. - ISBN 966-7312-69-0
- Avdeev V.P. , Fetinina E.P. "Technology of multivariate professional orientation: Monograph. - Novokuznetsk, 2001. - 115. - ISBN 5-7806-0070-8
- Ivasenko A.H., Nikonova Y.I., Tsevelev V. V. "Organizational Behavior: 100 exam answers: Tutorial. - M.: Flint, 2011 - 296.
- "Knorring V. I. " theory, practice and art of management. - 2001.
Quate: Socionics — "art of communication and understanding"
- Genkin B. M. Introduction to meta economy and basics of economic sciences
- Sisekin V. M. Management Psychology – Kaliningrad, 1998. - 126 p.
- Rizhikov Y. I. Dissertation work in technical sciences. - St. Petersburg, 2007. - 512 p. - ISBN 978-5-9775-0138-5
- Международный институт соционики. "Соционика: избранные диссертации, в которых исследуются и используются методы соционики". Socionic.info. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Bukalov A.V., Karpenko O.B., Chykyrysova G.V.Statistics of intertype relationships in married couples
- Bukalov A.V., Karpenko O.B., Chykyrysova G.V.Socionics: the effective theory of the mental structure and the interpersonal relations forecasting
- The human factor on production safety, different approaches and their application to the NP Zaporizhzhya. Lytvynov Y., psychologist, Zaporizhia nuclear power plant http://www.dysnai.org/Reports/2000-2004/2000/17.pdf
- Journal of LNPP, №4, 19 March 2009-http://www.laes.ru/content/pressa/vestnik/2009/V_04.pdf
- V.V. Behun, S.V. Shyrokov, S.V. Behun, E.N. Pysmennny, V.V. Lytvynov, I.V. Kazachkov Security system in nuclear energetic. Textbook for students of technical universities in Ukraine. Second edition, expand. Chapter 4
- Bukalov A.V. Theory of psycho informational space, its fields and structures. The general concept // Socionics, mentology and personal psychology. - 1999. - N5. - p.3-6.
- Bukalov A.V. About the concept of psycho informational space// Management and staff: management psychology, socionics and sociology. - 2008. - N 11. - p. 10–13.
- Bukalov A.V. About humans' interaction with electronic and technical systems in terms of socionics. Management and staff: management psychology, socionics and sociology. - 2004. - N 3. - p. 35-37
- Surtayeva N.N., Ivanova O.N. Pedagogical socionics and problems in conflict relationships. – St. Petersburg, 2002. — 135 p. ISBN 5-258-00021-4
- Fedorova V.K. Using pedagogical socionics in solving conflict relationships in educational process. Автореферат дисс. канд. пед. наук. — Omsk, 1998
- Gulenko V.V., Tyshchenko V.P. Юнг в школе. Соционика — межвозрастной педагогике. — Novosibirsk, 1997. — 268 p. ISBN 5-89441-014-2
- Bohdanova I.M. Ways of improving professional trainings for future teachers // Наука і освіта. — 2011. — № 4. — Ч.1. — p. 34-36
- Bobkov V.V. Дифференцированный подход к обучению Archived 2013-12-25 at the Wayback Machine: psycho informatic point of view. Part 1// Electronic scientific journal "Investigated in Russia". — 2006. — p. 371—400
- Rozhkob M.I. Editorial // Spirin L.F., Rumyanceva E.A., Rumyanceva T.A. Socionics for teachers and parents — Moscow, 1999. — 192 p. — pp. 3-5
- Иванов Ю.В. Деловая соционика — М.: Бизнес-школа «Интел-Синтез», 2001. — 184 с. — (Библиотека журнала «Управление персоналом»)
- Keneva I.P., Marchenko O.A., Minaev Y.P. Problem of accounting socionics type for future expert in forming his professional qualities. — Kamyanec Podilsky, 2008. — № 14. — pp. 62-65
- Keneva I.P., Marchenko O.A., Minaev Y.P. Socionics as educational discipline in humanitarian and social-economics trainings for science teaschers. — Kamyanec-Podilsky, 2009. — №. 15. — pp. 70-73
- Doctor of medical science Bohdashevsky R.B. «Socionics analyses of Russian-American crews on space station Mir"» // XI conference of space biology and aerospace medicine, Moscow, 1988
- Bukalov A.V., Karpenko O.B., Chykyrysova G.V. Forecasting psychological, business and informational compatibility in space flights, in aviation and aerospace technologies // 9th Ukrainian Conference on Space Research, Yevpatoria, 2009. Abstracts. — Kyiv, 2009. — P.104
- http://conf2011.imbp.ru/ItogovayaProg.pdf http://socionic.info/socnews.html # top
- "Курсы повышения квалификации летного состава 8 часов; курсы повышения квалификации преподавателей ауц 60 часов". Rudocs.exdat.com. 2000-02-18. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Автор научной работы: Лейченко, Станислав Данилович. "Диссертация на тему "Разработка модели формирования экипажей воздушных судов с целью повышения безопасности полетов" автореферат по специальности ВАК 05.22.14 - Эксплуатация воздушного транспорта | disserCat — электронная библиотека диссертаций и авторефератов, современная наука РФ". Dissercat.com. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Автор научной работы: Ариничева, Ольга Викторовна. "Диссертация на тему "Соционические подходы к комплектованию коллективов авиационных специалистов на воздушном транспорте" автореферат по специальности ВАК 05.22.14 - Эксплуатация воздушного транспорта | disserCat — электронная библиотека диссертаций и авторефератов, современная наука РФ". Dissercat.com. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
- Человеческий фактор в авиации: в 2-х кн. / С.Д. Лейченко, А.В. Малишевский, Н.Ф. Михайлик. - СПб., Кн.1. - 2005, Кн.2. - 2006. - 512 с.
- Maliszewski A.V., Arinicheva O.V., Parfeno I.A., Petrova M.V., Arakelyan D.A. Socionics approach to improving professional psychological selection of aviation personnel // Scientific Bulletin of Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation. - 2009. - № 149. - S. 83-90
- Kharchenko V.P., Shmeleva T.F., Sikirda Y..V., Zemlyanskyy A.V. Using socionics methods in forming professional navigation system groups // News NAU. — 2012. — №1. – pp. 14–21. - ISSN 1813-1166
- Jung, Carl G., Psychological Types (The Collected Works of Carl G. Jung, Vol.6), 1976 (1921), ISBN 0-691-01813-8 The chapter X, General description of types contains descriptions of basic psychological functions and 8 major psychological types.
- "As a consequence of this one-sided development, one or more functions are necessarily retarded. These functions may properly be called inferior ..." (Jung,  1971:Def. Inferior Function, par. 763).
- Аугустинавичюте А. (1995). Комментарий к типологии Юнга и введение в информационный метаболизм. Юнг и введение в информационный метаболизм. (in Russian). Title can be translated as Augustinavichiute A. (1995) A Commentary on Jung's Typology and an Introduction to the Information Metabolism. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 2.
- Аугустинавичюте А. Дуальная природа человека (1978). ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Augustinavichiute A. The Dual Nature of Man (1978)).
- Socionics.us, "Dual nature of man"
- Aaron, J.O.. Shorthand Notation for Model A, (2016)
- Butt, Joe (2011). "Functional Analysis of Psychological Types". TypeLogic.
- Socionics.kiev.ua Archived April 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, "Methodology"
- socionics.com, "Things to consider about MBTI® theory (Part 1)"
- Introduction into Socionics by Dmitri Lytov and Marianna Lytova
- Introduction to Socionics - Socionics.us
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- Аугустинавичюте Аушра Bookz.ru, Теория функций. Функционика (in Russian) The title can be translated as Function theory. Functionics.
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Модель «Т» впервые обнародована в научном докладе В.Л.Таланова 18, 20 и 22 сентября 2006 года в Киеве на XXII Международной конференции по соционике (в программе конференции доклад был озаглавлен «Содержательное наполнение и физиологическая интерпретация соционических признаков «конструктивисты-эмотивисты», «тактики-стратеги», «уступчивые-упрямые» и «беспечные-предусмотрительные», но по содержанию вышел за рамки названия). В журнал «Соционика, ментология и психология личности» в октябре 2006г. был отправлен цикл статей автора с подробным изложением, разбором и экспериментальным обоснованием новой предлагаемой соционической модели.
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