Smithsonian trinomial

A Smithsonian trinomial is a unique identifier assigned to archaeological sites in many states in the United States. They are composed of one or two digits coding for the state, typically two letters coding for the county or county-equivalent within the state, and one or more sequential digits representing the order in which the site was listed in that county.[1][2] The Smithsonian Institution developed the site number system in the 1930s and 1940s, but it no longer maintains the system. Trinomials are now assigned by the individual states. The 48 states then in the union were assigned numbers in alphabetical order. Alaska was assigned number 49 and Hawaii was assigned number 50, after those states were admitted to the union. There is no Smithsonian trinomial number assigned for the District of Columbia or any United States territory.[3][4]

Most states use trinomials of the form "nnAAnnnn", but some specify a space or dash between parts of the identifier, i.e., "nn AA nnnn" or "nn-AA-nnnn". Some states use variations of the trinomial system. Arizona, California, Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, and Vermont use two-letter abbreviations of the state name instead of the Smithsonian number. Alaska uses three-letter abbreviations for USGS map quadrangles in place of the county code. Arizona uses a five-part identifier based on USGS maps, specifying quadrangles, then rectangles within a quadrangle, a sequential number within the rectangle, and a code identifying the agency issuing the sequential number. California uses a three-letter abbreviation for counties. Connecticut and Rhode Island do not use any sub-state codes, with site identifiers consisting of the state abbreviation and a sequential number series for the whole state. Delaware uses a single letter code for counties and adds a block code (A-K) within each county, with sequential numbers for each block. Hawaii uses a four-part identifier, "50" for the state, a two-digit code for the island, then a two-digit code to designate the USGS topographical quad, plus a four digit sequential site number for sites on each island.

Archaeological site identification codes used by statesEdit

State Format County or equivalent codes
Alabama 1AAnnnn[5] AA: The code for a county is the first two letters in the county's name, with the following exceptions: Barbour=Br, Bibb=Bb, Blount=Bt, Bullock=Bk, Cherokee=Ce, Clinton=Cn, Choctaw=Cw, Clarke=Ck, Clay=Cy, Cleburne=Cb, Colbert=Ct, Conecuh=Cc, Coosa=Cs, Dallas=Ds, DeKalb=Dk, Elmore=Ee, Lamar=Lr, Lauderdale=Lu, Macon=Mc, Maringo=Mo, Marion=My, Marshall=Ms, Mobile=Mb, Monroe=Mn, Montgomery=Mt, Morgan=Mg, St. Clair=Sc, Tallapoosa=Tp, Washington=Wn, and Wilcox=Wx.[6]
Alaska 49‑AAA‑nnnn[7] AAA: Three letter codes are abbreviations of the names for quadrangles on USGS maps for Alaska.[8]
Arizona AZ AA:NN:nn(XXX)[9] AA: One or two letter code, A through FF, identifying USGS map quadrangles (one degree of latitude by one degree of longitude) in Arizona.

NN: One or two digit number, 1 though 16, identifying rectangles (15' USGS maps) in a quadrangle map.[10]

Arkansas 3AAnnnn List of counties in Arkansas
California CA‑AAA‑nnnn[11] AAA: County Abbreviation Codes (Appendix 1)
Colorado 5AAnnnn[12] AA: County Abbreviation Codes
Connecticut CT‑nnnnn No county code; state abbreviation and a sequential number only
Delaware 7ABnnnn[13] A: K = Kent County, N = New Castle County, and S = Sussex County. B: Figure 25: Map of blocks
Florida 8AAnnnn[14] AA: The code for a county is the first two letters in the county's name, with the following exceptions: Bay=BY, Bradford=BF, Broward=BD, Collier=CR, Gadsden=GD, Hardee=HR, Hendry=HN, Highlands=HG, Lafayette=LF, Lee=LL, Levy=LV, Madison=MD, Marion=MR, Martin=MT, Miami-Dade=DA, Okeechobee=OK, Palm Beach=PB, St. Johns=SJ, St. Lucie=SL, Santa Rosa=SR, Sarasota=SO, Sumter=SM, Walton=WL, and Washington=WS.[15]
Georgia 9AAnnnn[16] AA: County Abbreviation Codes
Hawaii 50‑AA‑BB‑nnnn[17] AA: 10 = Hawaii, 20 = Kaho'olawi, 30 = Kaua'i, 40 = Lana'i, 50 = Maui, 60 = Moloka'i, 80 = O'ahu, 91 = Necker, 92 = Nihoa[18]
BB: USGS Quad number
Idaho 10AAnnnn AA: Idaho County Abbreviations for Site Designation
Illinois 11AAnnnn[19] List of counties in Illinois
Indiana 12AAnnnn[19] List of counties in Indiana
Iowa 13AAnnnn[20] AA: Iowa County Abbreviations for Site Designation
Kansas 14AAnnnn[21] AA: Kansas County Abbreviations for Archeological Trinomials
Kentucky 15AAnnnn[19] List of counties in Kentucky ADAIR (AD); ALLEN (AL); ANDERSON (AN); BALLARD (BA); BARREN (BN); BATH (BH); BELL (BL); BOONE (BE); BOURBON (BB); BOYD (BD); BOYLE (BO); BRACKEN (BK); BREATHITT (BR); BRECKINRIDGE (BC); BULLITT (BU); BUTLER (BT); CALDWELL (CA); CALLOWAY (CW); CAMPBELL (CP); CARLISLE (CE); CARROLL (CL); CARTER (CR); CASEY (CS); CHRISTIAN (CH); CLARK (CK); CLAY (CY); CLINTON (CT); CRITTENDEN (CN); CUMBERLAND (CU); DAVIESS (DA); EDMONSON (ED); ELLIOTT (EL); ESTILL (ES); FAYETTE (FA); FLEMING (FL); FLOYD (FD); FRANKLIN (FR); FULTON (FU); GALLATIN (GA); GARRARD (GD); GRANT (GR); GRAVES (GV); GRAYSON (GY); GREEN (GN); GREENUP (GP); HANCOCK (HA); HARDIN (HD); HARLAN (HL); HARRISON (HR); HART (HT); HENDERSON (HE); HENRY (HY); HICKMAN (HI); HOPKINS (HK); JACKSON (JA); JEFFERSON (JF); JESSAMINE (JS); JOHNSON (JO); KENTON (KE); KNOTT (KT); KNOX (KX); LARUE (LU); LAUREL (LL); LAWRENCE (LA); LEE (LE); LESLIE (LS); LETCHER (LR); LEWIS (LW); LINCOLN (LI); LIVINGSTON (LV); LOGAN (LO); LYON (LY); MCCRACKEN (MCN); MCCREARY (MCY); MCLEAN (MCL); MADISON (MA); MAGOFFIN (MG); MARION (MN); MARSHALL (ML); MARTIN (MT); MASON (MS); MEADE (MD); MENIFEE (MF); MERCER (ME); METCALFE (MC); MONROE (MR); MONTGOMERY (MM); MORGAN (MO); MUHLENBERG (MU); NELSON (NE); NICHOLAS (NI); OHIO (OH); OLDHAM (OL); OWEN (ON); OWSLEY (OW); PENDLETON (PD); PERRY (PE); PIKE (PI); POWELL (PO); PULASKI (PU); ROBERTSON (RB); ROCKCASTLE (RK); ROWAN (RO); RUSSELL (RU); SCOTT (SC); SHELBY (SH); SIMPSON (SI); SPENCER (SP); TAYLOR (TA); TODD (TO); TRIGG (TR); TRIMBLE (TM); UNION (UN); WARREN (WA); WASHINGTON (WS); WAYNE (WN); WEBSTER (WE); WHITLEY (WH); WOLFE (WO); WOODFORD (WD)
Louisiana 16AAnnnn[22] List of parishes in Louisiana
Maine ME-nn-nn
Maryland 18AAnnnn[23] List of counties in Maryland
Massachusetts 19-AA-nnnn
Michigan 20AAnnnn[24] List of counties in Michigan
Minnesota 21AAnnnn[25] AA: Trinomial Site Designations for MN Counties
Mississippi 22‑AA‑nnnn[26] List of counties in Mississippi
Missouri 23AAnnnn List of counties in Missouri
Montana 24AAnnnn[27] AA: Trinomial Site Designations for MT Counties
Nebraska 25AAnnnn[28]
Nevada 26AAnnnn[29]
New Hampshire 27‑AA‑nnnn[30] AA: Belknap (BK) · Carroll (CA) · Cheshire (CH) · Coos (CO) · Grafton (GR) · Hillsborough (HB) · Merrimack (MR) · Rockingham (RK) · Strafford (ST) · Sullivan (SU)
New Jersey 28AAnnnn
New Mexico 29AAnnnn
North Carolina[31] 31AAnnnn AA: Alamance (AM) · Alexander (AX) · Alleghany (AL) · Anson (AN) · Ashe (AH) · Avery (Av) · Beaufort (BF) · Bertie (BR) · Bladen (BL) · Brunswick (BW) · Buncombe (BN) · Burke (BK) · Cabarrus (CA) · Caldwell (CW) · Camden (CM) · Carteret (CR) · Caswell (CS) · Catawba (CT) · Chatham (CH) · Cherokee (CE) · Chowan (CO) · Clay (CY) · Cleveland (CL) · Columbus (CB) · Craven (CV) · Cumberland (CD) · Currituck (CK) · Dare (DR) · Davidson (DV) · Davie (DE) · Duplin (DP) · Durham (DH) · Edgecombe (ED) · Forsyth (FY) · Franklin (FK) · Gaston (GS) · Gates (GA) · Graham (GH) · Granville (GV) · Greene (GR) · Guilford (GF) · Halifax (HX) · Harnett (HT) · Haywood (HW) · Henderson (HN) · Hertford (HF) · Hoke (HK) · Hyde (HY) · Iredell (ID) · Jackson (JK) · Johnston (JT) · Jones (JN) · Lee (LE) · Lenoir (LR) · Lincoln (LN) · Macon (MA) · Madison (MD) · Martin (MT) · McDowell (MC) · Mecklenburg (MK) · Mitchell (ML) · Montgomery (MG) · Moore (MR) · Nash (NS) · New Hanover (NH) · Northampton (NP) · Onslow (ON) · Orange (OR) · Pamlico (PM) · Pasquotank (PK) · Pender (PD) · Perquimans (PQ) · Person (PR) · Pitt (PT) · Polk (PL) · Randolph (RD) · Richmond (RH) · Robeson (RB) · Rockingham (RK) · Rowan (RW) · Rutherford (RF) · Sampson (SP) · Scotland (SC) · Stanly (ST) · Stokes (SK) · Surry (SR) · Swain (SW) · Transylvania (TV) · Tyrrell (TY) · Union (UN) · Vance (VN) · Wake (WA) · Warren (WR) · Washington (WH) · Watauga (WT) · Wayne (WY) · Wilkes (WK) · Wilson (WL) · Yadkin (YD) · Yancey (YC)
North Dakota 32AAnnnn[32] AA: NDCRS Site Form Training Manual - Section I: Site Identification - County Codes (Page 10)
Ohio 33‑AA‑nnnn[33] AA: Appendix B: County Codes (OAI Codes) (Page 61)
Oklahoma 34AAnnnn[34] AA: Table 1
Oregon[35] 35‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Oregon
Pennsylvania[36] 36‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Pennsylvania
Rhode Island RI‑nnnn No county code; state abbreviation and a sequential number only
South Carolina 38‑AA‑nnnn[37] List of counties in South Carolina
South Dakota 39AAnnnn[38]
Tennessee[39] 40AAnnnn AA: County Abbreviations for Archaeological Site Numbers
Texas[40] 41‑AA‑nnnn AA: Texas County Abbreviations
Utah[41] 42‑AA‑nnnn AA: List of counties in Utah (p. 3)
Vermont[42] VT‑AA‑nnnn AA: Addison (AD) · Bennington (BE) · Caledonia (CA) · Chittenden (CH) · Essex (ES) · Franklin (FR) · Grand Isle (GI) · Lamoille (LA) · Orange (OR) · Orleans (OL) · Rutland (RU) · Washington (WA) · Windham (WD) · Windsor (WN)
Virginia[43] 44-AA-nnnn
Washington[44] 45‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Washington
West Virginia[45] 46‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in West Virginia
Wisconsin[46] 47‑AA‑nnnn List of counties in Wisconsin
Wyoming[47] 48AAnnnn List of counties in Wyoming and also YE for sites within Yellowstone National Park

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Site Records". Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  2. ^ "Site Forms". University of Georgia Anthropology Department. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  3. ^ "Archaeological Collections Management: Old Washington State Park, Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas" (PDF). Retrieved January 10, 2013.
  4. ^ "State Abbreviation for Archaeological Site Number Designation based on the Smithsonian Institution River Basin Survey of the 1940s". Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  5. ^ "Archaeological Excavation steps". University of Alabama. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  6. ^ "Alabama County Abbreviation for Archaeological Site Number Designation". Alabama Archaeology. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012.
  7. ^ "Alaska Heritage Resources Survey" (PDF). Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  8. ^ "Quadrangle map". Archived from the original on November 4, 2013.
  9. ^ "ASM Site Numbering and Quadrangle System". Arizona State Museum. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  10. ^ "ASM Site Numbering and Quadrangle System". Arizona State Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 11, 2016.
  11. ^ "Glossary of Frequently Used Terms". CaliforniaPrehistory.com. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
  12. ^ "What Does the Site Number Mean?". Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  13. ^ "Survey Forms Instructions and Data Coordination Guidance" (PDF). Delaware State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  14. ^ "Guidelines for Survey Projects" (PDF). Florida Division of Historical Resources. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
  15. ^ "Metadata for Archaeological Sites GIS Data Layer". Florida Division of Historical Resources. July 1904. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
  16. ^ "Site Forms". University of Georgia Anthropology Department. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  17. ^ "State Inventory of Historic Places Attribute Definitions" (PDF). Hawaii State Historic Preservation Division. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
  18. ^ "Register of Historic Places". Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  19. ^ a b c Pollack, David (August 19, 2004). Caborn-Welborn: Constructing a New Society after the Angel Chiefdom Collapse. University Alabama Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0817351267.
  20. ^ "How to Complete the Iowa Archaeological Site Record Form: A Guide for Nonprofessional Archaeologists". Office of the State Archaeologist. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  21. ^ "Kansas County Abbreviations for Archeological Trinomials". Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  22. ^ "Louisiana Historic Resource Inventory Guidelines" (PDF). Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation. 2010. p. 40. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  23. ^ "Archaeological Site Survey" (PDF). Maryland Historic Trust. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  24. ^ Beld, Scott. "Some Notes On Recording The Location Of Sites And Obtaining Site Numbers". Michigan Archaeological Society. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  25. ^ "Trinomial Site Designations for MN Counties". University of Minnesota. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
  26. ^ "Mississippi Standards for Archaeological Practices" (PDF). Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  27. ^ "The Montana Cultural Resource Annotated Bibliography System" (PDF). Montana State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  28. ^ "National Historic Preservation Act Archaeological Properties Section 106 Guidelines" (PDF). Nebraska State Historic Preservation Office. p. 22. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  29. ^ "Guidelines and Standards for Archaeological Inventory" (PDF). Bureau of Land Management: Nevada State Office. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  30. ^ "New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources: Archaeological Inventory Site Form Manual" (PDF). Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  31. ^ "Archaeological Investigations Standards and Guidelines". North Carolina Office of State Archaeology. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  32. ^ "NDCRS Site Form Training Manual" (PDF). Retrieved January 10, 2013.
  33. ^ "Ohio Archaeological Inventory Form Instruction Manual" (PDF). Ohio Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  34. ^ "Instructions for Completing the Oklahoma Archaeological Site Survey Form" (PDF). Oklahoma Archaeological Survey. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  35. ^ "Oregon SHPO On-Line Site Form User Manual" (PDF). Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  36. ^ "Guidelines for Archaeological Investigations in Pennsylvania" (PDF). Pennsylvania State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  37. ^ "Curation, Loan, and Access Policy" (PDF). South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology. pp. 21–22. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 5, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
  38. ^ "South Dakota Architectural Survey Manual" (PDF). South Dakota State Historic Preservation Office. p. 70. Retrieved December 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  39. ^ List of archaeological sites in Tennessee
  40. ^ "Site Records". Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  41. ^ "Utah Archaeology Site Form Manual". Utah State History. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  42. ^ "Guidelines for Conducting Archaeology in Vermont: Appendix I" (PDF). Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  43. ^ "VCRIS User Guide". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Retrieved January 19, 2022.
  44. ^ "Frequently asked questions on the Washington State Inventory of Cultural Resources" (PDF). Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  45. ^ "Guidelines for Phase I, II, and III Archaeological Investigations and Technical Report Preparation" (PDF). West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  46. ^ "A Guide to Wisconsin's Archaeological Inventory Forms" (PDF). Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  47. ^ "File Search Fees and General Procedures". Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved May 5, 2016.