Simpson's rules (ship stability)
Simpson's 1st ruleEdit
Also known as the 1–4–1 rule (after the multipliers used ).
Simpson's 2nd ruleEdit
Simpson's 3rd ruleEdit
Use of Simpsons rulesEdit
Simpson's rules are used to calculate the volume of lifeboats, and by surveyors to calculate the volume of sludge in a ship's oil tanks. For instance, in the latter, Simpson's 3rd rule is used to find the volume between two co-ordinates. To calculate the entire area / volume, Simpson's first rule is used.
Simpson's rules are used by a ship's officers to check that the area under the ship's GZ curve complies with IMO stability criteria.
- Bryan Barass; D.R.Derett. Ship stability for Masters and Mates (PDF). United Kingdom: Elsevier Butterworth. p. 69.
- Rhodes, Martin (2003). Ship Stability for Mates/Masters. United Kingdom: Seamanship International. p. 70.
- Subramaniam, Capt. Harry. Nutshell series – Ship Stability III. Mumbai, India: Vijaya Publications.
- Donkum, Enkhuizen, Van (2010). ShipStability. Dokmar publications. ISBN 978-90-71500-15-2.
- Bhange, Archana Ashish (February 2017). "Simpson's Rules and It's Application in Ship Stability" (PDF). International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences. 6: 7.
- Kitching, Capt. R.C.E. Introduction to Ship Stability. Canada: Starpath Publications.
- V.L. Belenky; N.B Sevastianov (2007). Stability and Safety of Ships. USA: The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. ISBN 0-939773-61-9.