This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (June 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Silly Symphony is a series of 75 animated short films produced by Walt Disney Productions from 1929 to 1939. As their name implies, the Silly Symphonies were originally intended as whimsical accompaniments to pieces of music. As such, the films usually had independent continuity and did not feature continuing characters, unlike the Mickey Mouse shorts produced by Disney at the same time (exceptions to this include Three Little Pigs, The Tortoise and the Hare, and Three Orphan Kittens, which all had sequels). The series is notable for its innovation with Technicolor and the multiplane motion picture camera, as well as its introduction of the character Donald Duck making his first appearance in the Silly Symphony cartoon The Wise Little Hen in 1934. Seven shorts won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film.
The series also spawned a Disney media franchise that included the Silly Symphonies newspaper comic strip distributed by King Features Syndicate, the Dell comic book series Silly Symphonies, as well as several children's books, many of which were based on Silly Symphony cartoons.
Within the animation industry, the series is most noted for its use by Walt Disney as a platform for experimenting with processes, techniques, characters, and stories in order to further the art of animation. It also provided a venue to try out techniques and technologies, such as Technicolor, special effects animation, and dramatic storytelling in animation, that would be crucial to Disney's plans to eventually begin making feature-length animated films.
Shortly after the switch to United Artists, the series became even more popular. Walt Disney had seen some of Dr. Herbert Kalmus' tests for a new three-strip, full-color Technicolor process, which would replace the previous, two-tone Technicolor process. Disney signed a contract with Technicolor which gave the Disney studio exclusive rights to the new three-strip process through the end of 1935, and had a 60% complete Symphony, Flowers and Trees, scrapped and redone in full color. Flowers and Trees was the first animated film to use the three-strip Technicolor process, and was a phenomenal success. Within a year, the now-in-Technicolor Silly Symphonies series had popularity and success that matched (and later surpassed) that of the Mickey Mouse cartoons. The contract Disney had with Technicolor would also later be extended another five years as well. The shorts began to have stronger plots too, and the success of Silly Symphonies would be tremendously boosted after Three Little Pigs was released in 1933 and became a box office sensation; the film was featured in movie theaters for several months and also featured the hit song that became the anthem of the Great Depression, "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf". Several Silly Symphonies entries, including Three Little Pigs (1933), The Grasshopper and the Ants (1934), The Tortoise and the Hare (1935), The Country Cousin (1936), The Old Mill (1937), Wynken, Blynken, and Nod (1938), and The Ugly Duckling (1939, with an earlier black-and-white version from 1931), are among the most notable films produced by Walt Disney. Due to problems related to Disney's scheduled productions of cartoons, a deal was made with Harman and Ising to produce three Silly Symphonies; Merbabies, Pipe Dreams, and The Little Bantamweight. Only one of these cartoons, Merbabies, ended up being bought by Disney, the remaining two Harman-Ising Silly Symphonies were then sold to MGM who released them as Happy Harmonies cartoons. Disney ceased production of Silly Symphonies in 1939.
The series was first distributed by Pat Powers from 1929 to 1930 and released by Celebrity Productions (1929–1930) indirectly through Columbia Pictures. The original basis of the cartoons was musical novelty, and the musical scores of the first cartoons were composed by Carl Stalling.
After viewing "The Skeleton Dance", the manager at Columbia Pictures quickly became interested in distributing the series, and gained the perfect opportunity to acquire Silly Symphonies after Disney broke with Celebrity Productions head Pat Powers after Powers signed Disney's colleague Ub Iwerks to a studio contract. Columbia Pictures (1930–1932) agreed to pick up the direct distribution of the Mickey Mouse series on the condition that they would have exclusive rights to distribute the Silly Symphonies series; at first, Silly Symphonies could not even come close to the popularity Mickey Mouse had. The original title cards to the shorts released by Celebrity Productions and Columbia Pictures were all redrawn after Walt Disney stopped distributing his cartoons through them. Meanwhile, more competition spread for Disney after Max Fleischer's flapper cartoon character Betty Boop began to gain more and more popularity after starring in the cartoon Minnie the Moocher; by August 1932, Betty Boop even became so popular, that the Talkartoon series was renamed as Betty Boop cartoons.
In 1932, after falling out with Columbia Pictures, Disney began distributing his products through United Artists. UA refused to distribute the Silly Symphonies unless Disney associated Mickey Mouse with them somehow, resulting in the "Mickey Mouse presents a Silly Symphony" title cards and posters that introduced and promoted the series during its five-year run for UA. United Artists also agreed to double the budget for each cartoon from 7,500 dollars to 15,000 dollars.
Several Symphonies have been released in home media. For instance, the original Dumbo VHS included Father Noah's Ark, The Practical Pig and Three Orphan Kittens as bonus shorts to make up for the film's short length. In the UK, several Symphonies were released in compilations under Walt Disney Home Video's "Storybook Favourites" brand. The three volumes released included among others, Three Little Pigs, The Tortoise and the Hare and the remake of The Ugly Duckling. Most home media releases of various Disney films also include Symphonies as bonus shorts.
On December 3, 2001 - two days before the 100th anniversary of Walt Disney's birth - Disney released "Silly Symphonies" as part of its DVD series "Walt Disney Treasures". On December 19, 2006, "More Silly Symphonies" was released, completing the collection and allowing the cartoons to be completely available to the public.
List of filmsEdit
The Silly Symphonies are listed here in production order.
|#||Film||Original release date||Director||Music||Notes||Running time (minutes)|
|1||The Skeleton Dance||August 22, 1929||Walt Disney||Carl Stalling||
|2||El Terrible Toreador||September 26, 1929||Walt Disney||Carl Stalling||
|3||Springtime||October 24, 1929||Ub Iwerks||Carl Stalling||
|4||Hell's Bells||November 21, 1929||Ub Iwerks||Carl Stalling||5:49|
|5||The Merry Dwarfs||December 19, 1929||Walt Disney||Carl Stalling||5:57|
|6||Summer||January 16, 1930||Ub Iwerks||Carl Stalling||5:51|
|7||Autumn||February 15, 1930||Ub Iwerks||Carl Stalling||
|8||Cannibal Capers||March 20, 1930||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis||
|9||Night||July 31, 1930||Walt Disney||Bert Lewis||
|10||Frolicking Fish||June 21, 1930||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis||
|11||Arctic Antics||June 27, 1930||Ub Iwerks(Possibly), Burt Gillett(Possibly)}}||Bert Lewis||
|12||Midnight in a Toy Shop||August 16, 1930||Wilfred Jackson||Bert Lewis||
|13||Monkey Melodies||September 26, 1930||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis||
|14||Winter||October 30, 1930||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis|
|15||Playful Pan||December 27, 1930||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis|
|16||Birds of a Feather||February 3, 1931||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis|
|17||Mother Goose Melodies||April 16, 1931||Burt Gillett|
|18||The China Plate||May 23, 1931||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill|
|19||The Busy Beavers||June 30, 1931||Burt Gillett||Frank Churchill|
|20||The Cat's Nightmare||July 28, 1931||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill||
|21||Egyptian Melodies||August 27, 1931||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill|
|22||The Clock Store||September 28, 1931||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill|
|23||The Spider and the Fly||October 23, 1931||Wilfred Jackson|
|24||The Fox Hunt||November 20, 1931||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill|
|25||The Ugly Duckling||December 17, 1931||Wilfred Jackson|
|26||The Bird Store||January 16, 1932||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill||
|27||The Bears and the Bees||July 15, 1932||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill||
|28||Just Dogs||August 12, 1932||Wilfred Jackson||Bert Lewis|
|29||Flowers and Trees||July 30, 1932||Burt Gillett|
|30||Bugs in Love||October 1, 1932||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis||
|31||King Neptune||October 7, 1932||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis|
|32||Babes in the Woods||November 19, 1932||Burt Gillett||Bert Lewis||
|33||Santa's Workshop||December 10, 1932||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill||
|34||Birds in the Spring||March 13, 1933||David Hand||Bert Lewis
|35||Father Noah's Ark||April 8, 1933||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|36||Three Little Pigs||May 27, 1933||Burt Gillett||Frank Churchill|
|37||Old King Cole||July 29, 1933||David Hand||Frank Churchill
|38||Lullaby Land||August 19, 1933||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill
|39||The Pied Piper||September 16, 1933||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|40||The Night Before Christmas||December 9, 1933||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline||
|41||The China Shop||January 13, 1934||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|42||The Grasshopper and the Ants||February 10, 1934||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|43||Funny Little Bunnies||March 24, 1934||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill
|44||The Big Bad Wolf||April 14, 1934||Burt Gillett||Frank Churchill|
|45||The Wise Little Hen||June 9, 1934||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline||
|46||The Flying Mouse||July 14, 1934||David Hand||Frank Churchill
|47||Peculiar Penguins||September 1, 1934||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|48||The Goddess of Spring||November 3, 1934||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|49||The Tortoise and the Hare||January 5, 1935||Wilfred Jackson||Frank Churchill||
|50||The Golden Touch||March 22, 1935||Walt Disney||Frank Churchill|
|51||The Robber Kitten||April 20, 1935||David Hand||Frank Churchill|
|52||Water Babies||May 11, 1935||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|53||The Cookie Carnival||May 25, 1935||Ben Sharpsteen||Leigh Harline|
|54||Who Killed Cock Robin?||June 29, 1935||David Hand||Frank Churchill|
|55||Music Land||October 5, 1935||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|56||Three Orphan Kittens||October 26, 1935||David Hand||Frank Churchill||
|57||Cock o' the Walk||November 30, 1935||Ben Sharpsteen||Frank Churchill
Alfred Hay Malotte
|58||Broken Toys||December 14, 1935||Ben Sharpsteen||Alfred Hay Malotte||
|59||Elmer Elephant||March 28, 1936||Wilferd Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|60||Three Little Wolves||April 18, 1936||David Hand||Frank Churchill|
|61||Toby Tortoise Returns||August 22, 1936||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|62||Three Blind Mouseketeers||September 26, 1936||David Hand||Alfred Hay Malotte|
|63||The Country Cousin||October 31, 1936||David Hand
|64||Mother Pluto||November 14, 1936||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline||
|65||More Kittens||December 19, 1936||David Hand||Frank Churchill||
|66||Woodland Café||March 13, 1937||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|67||Little Hiawatha||May 15, 1937||David Hand||Alfred Hay Malotte||
|68||The Old Mill||November 5, 1937||Wilfred Jackson||Leigh Harline|
|69||Wynken, Blynken and Nod||May 27, 1938||Graham Heid||Leigh Harline|
|70||Moth and the Flame||April 1, 1938||David Hand
|Alfred Hay Malotte|
|71||Merbabies||December 9, 1938||Rudolf Ising, Vernon Stallings||Scott Bradley|
|72||Farmyard Symphony||October 14, 1938||Jack Cutting||Leigh Harline|
|73||Mother Goose Goes Hollywood||December 23, 1938||Wilfred Jackson||Edward Plumb||
|74||The Practical Pig||February 24, 1939||Duck Rickard||Frank Churchill
|75||The Ugly Duckling||April 7, 1939||Jack Cutting
|Alfred Hay Malotte||
Disney's experiments were widely praised within the film industry, and the Silly Symphonies won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film seven times, maintaining a six-year-hold on the category after it was first introduced. This record was matched only by MGM's Tom and Jerry series during the 1940s and 1950s.
Silly Symphonies brought along many imitators, including Warner Bros. cartoon series Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, MGM's Happy Harmonies, and later, Universal's Swing Symphony. The television series Mickey Mouse Works used the Silly Symphonies title for some of its new cartoons, but unlike the original cartoons, these did feature continuing characters. Disney also produced comic strips and comic books with this title.
The Symphonies also changed the course of Disney Studio history when Walt's plans to direct his first feature cartoon became problematic after his warm-up to the task The Golden Touch was widely seen (even by Disney himself) as stiff and slowly paced. This motivated him to embrace his role as being the producer and providing creative oversight (especially of the story) for Snow White while tasking David Hand to handle the actual directing.
Years later after the Silly Symphonies ended, Disney occasionally produced a handful of one-shot cartoons, playing the same style as the Silly Symphony series. Unlike the Silly Symphonies canon, most of these "Specials" have a narration, usually by Disney legend Sterling Holloway.
- Golden age of American animation
- List of Disney animated shorts
- Other animated shorts series
- Silly Symphonies the newspaper comic strip, featuring adaptations of the animated shorts. Collected in IDW Publishing's and The Library of American Comics's book series, Silly Symphonies: The Complete Disney Classics
- Robertson, Patrick (2011). Robertson's Book of Firsts. London: Bloomsbury. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- "Glorious Technicolor 1932-1955". Widescreenmuseum.com. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "The Birth of the ''Silly Symphonies''". Disney.go.com. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- Three Little Pigs at the Disney archives
- "Who's Who in Animated Cartoons: An International Guide to Film and Television's Award-Winning and Legendary Animators". Books.google.no. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "''Silly Symphonies'' at". Toonopedia.com. 1929-05-10. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "The Birth of the ''Silly Symphonies'', by Russell Merritt and J.B. Kaufman". Disney.go.com. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- Mosley, Leonard (1990). Disney's World. Scarborough House. p. 135. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- Layton, James; Pierce, Davis (February 24, 2015). The Dawn of Technicolor 1915–1935. Rochester, New York: George Eastman Museum. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-935398-28-1.
- Walt Disney: The Animated Man by Michael Barrier