Silas Talbot (January 11, 1751 – June 30, 1813) was an officer in the Continental Army and in the Continental Navy during the American Revolution. Talbot is most famous for commanding the USS Constitution from 1799 to 1801.
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from New York's 10th district
March 4, 1793 – c. June 5, 1794
|Succeeded by||William Cooper|
|Born||January 11, 1751|
|Died||June 30, 1813 (aged 62)|
New York City
Talbot was born in Dighton, Massachusetts and came from a large, farming family. He first took to seafaring at the age of twelve serving as cabin boy in a coasting vessel. Talbot's performance proved to be outstanding and by 1772 had saved up enough money to buy property on Weybosset Street in Providence, Rhode Island, and build a stone home, having learned the trade of stone masonry earlier in life.
On June 28, 1775 Talbot received the commission of a captain in the 2nd Rhode Island Regiment. After participating in the siege of Boston, Talbot and the Continental Army began their march to New York. En route, they stopped at New London, Connecticut whose port had just received Esek Hopkins who had just landed from a naval expedition to the Bahamas. After learning that Hopkins was going to petition General Washington for 200 volunteers needed to assist his squadron in reaching Providence, Talbot volunteered his services in this effort.
After Talbot made his way back to New York where he was aiding in the transportation of troops, he obtained command of a fire ship and attempted to use it to set fire to the British warship HMS Asia on September 14, 1776. The attempt failed, but the daring it displayed, and that Talbot was severely burned during the effort, won him a promotion to major on October 10, 1777 retroactive to September 1.
After suffering a severe wound at Fort Mifflin, while fighting to defend Philadelphia, on October 23, 1777, Talbot returned to active service in the summer of 1778 and fought the Battle of Rhode Island on August 28, 1778.
As commander of the galley Pigot (which he had captured from the British in the Sakonnet River on October 28, 1778), and later Argo, both under the Army, he cruised against Loyalist vessels that were harassing American trade between Long Island and Nantucket and made prisoners of many of them. On November 14, 1778 the Continental Congress passed a resolution which recognized his success in capturing the Pigot and promoted him to lieutenant colonel on the same date. In October of the same year, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted to present Talbot with a "genteel silver-hilted sword" for the same action. The sword was made by silversmith John Gladding Gibbs of Providence.
Because of his success fighting afloat for the Army, Congress commissioned Talbot a captain in the Continental Navy on September 17, 1779. However, since Congress had no suitable warship to entrust to him, Talbot put to sea in command of the privateer General Washington. In it, he took one prize, but soon thereafter ran into the British fleet off New York. After a chase, he struck his colors to Culloden, a 74-gun ship-of-the-line and remained a prisoner until exchanged for a British officer in December 1781.
After the war, Talbot settled in Johnstown, New York, the county seat of Fulton County, where he purchased the former manor house and estate of Sir William Johnson, founder of Johnstown. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1792 and 1792-93.
In January 1793, Talbot was elected as a Federalist from New York to the 3rd United States Congress, and served from March 4, 1793, to approximately June 5, 1794, when President George Washington chose him third in a list of six captains of the newly established United States Navy. He was ordered to superintend the construction of the frigate USS President at New York. On April 20, 1796, construction of the President was suspended and Talbot was discharged from the Navy.
With the outbreak of the Quasi-War with France, Talbot was re-commissioned as a captain in the United States Navy on May 11, 1798. He served as commander of the USS Constitution from June 5, 1799 until September 8, 1801, sailing it to the West Indies where he protected American commerce from French privateers during the Quasi-War. He commanded the Santo Domingo Station in 1799 and 1800 and was commended by the Secretary of the Navy for protecting American commerce and for laying the foundation of a permanent trade with that country. It is said that Talbot was wounded 13 times and carried 5 bullets in his body.
Legacy and honorsEdit
The first USS Talbot (Torpedo Boat No. 15) was named for Lt. John Gunnell Talbot, no relation to Silas Talbot; the second and third Talbots (Talbot (DD-114/APD 7) and Talbot (DEG/FFG-4), respectively) were named for Captain Silas Talbot.
Talbot was an original member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati.
Battery Talbot (1899-1919), named for Silas Talbot in G.O. 30, 19 Mar 1902, was a reinforced concrete, Endicott Period 4.72 inch coastal gun battery on Fort Adams, Newport County, Rhode Island. Both of the original guns from this battery survive. One is on display at Equality Park in Newport and the other is at Fort Moultrie National Park near Charleston, South Carolina.
- Eastman, Ralph M. (2004). Some Famous Privateers of New England.
Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 48. ISBN 1-4179-0676-6.
- Fowler, William M. (1900). Silas Talbot: Captain of Old Ironsides. Mystic Seaport Museum. p. 231. ISBN 9780913372739.
- Decker, Lewis G. (1999). Images of America: Johnstown. Charlestown, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-0174-3.
- See The Democratic Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763-1797 by Alfred Fabian Young (1967; page 506) [says that Talbot resigned], but Abridgment of Debates in Congress, 1789 to 1856 (Vol. I) has no entry of a formal resignation. Documented is Talbot listed as voting until the end of May 1794; and after the adjournment, as not taking his seat again in November.
- Bradford, James C. (1955). Quarterdeck and bridge: two centuries of American naval leaders. Naval Institute Press. p. 455. ISBN 1-55750-073-8.
- Cooper, James Fenimore (1856). History of the navy of the United States of America. Stringer & Townsend, New York. p. 508. OCLC 197401914.
- Fowler, William M. (1995). Silas Talbot: Captain of Old Ironsides. Mystic, Connecticut: Mystic Seaport Museum. ISBN 0-913372-73-0.
- Heitman, Francis B. (1914). Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army. The Rare Bookshop Publishing Company Inc. p. 531.
- McKee, Christopher (1991). A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession:The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794-1815. Naval Institute Press. p. 600. ISBN 9780870212833.
- Jennings, John (1966). Tattered Ensign The Story of America's Most Famous Fighting Frigate, U.S.S. Constitution. Thomas Y. Crowell. OCLC 1291484.
- Statham, Edward Phillips (1910). Privateers and privateering. With eight illustrations. Hutchinson & co / James Pott & Co., New York. p. 382.
- Tuckerman, Henry (2009). The Life of Silas Talbot. Applewood Books, Bedford, Massachusetts. p. 148. ISBN 9781429021593.
- "Ships Histories Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Department of the Navy - Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 1 November 2011.