The Shenyang J-15 (Chinese: 歼-15) NATO reporting name: Flanker-X2 , also known as Flying Shark (Chinese: 飞鲨; pinyin: Fēishā), is a 4th generation, twin-jet, all-weather, carrier-based fighter aircraft in development by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation and the 601 Institute for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy's aircraft carriers. It is developed from J-11B as well as from studying of a prototype of Su-33. An unfinished Su-33 prototype, the T-10K-3, was acquired from Ukraine in 2001 and is said to have been studied extensively, reversed engineered, with development on the J-15 beginning immediately afterward. While the J-15 appears to be structurally based on the prototype of Su-33, the indigenous fighter features Chinese technologies as well as avionics from the J-11B program. In February 2018, discussions about replacing the aircraft appeared in several Chinese media outlets including Xinhua and China's main military newspaper, contending the shortcomings of the aircraft are obvious since it still belongs to the 4th or 4.5 generation fighters, thus China urgently needs a 5th generation successor to it, one that will be based on J-20, J-31, or a new design.[non-primary source needed]
|A J-15 taking off from Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning|
|Role||Carrier-based multirole fighter|
|Manufacturer||Shenyang Aircraft Corporation|
|First flight||31 August 2009|
|Status||In production, in active service|
|Primary user||People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force|
US$61 million as of 2017
|Developed from||Prototype of Sukhoi Su-33|
China has sought to purchase Su-33s from Russia on several occasions—an unsuccessful offer was made as late as March 2009—but negotiations collapsed in 2006 after it was discovered that China had developed a modified version of the Sukhoi Su-27SK designated the Shenyang J-11B, in violation of intellectual property agreements. However, according to Chinese sources, the reason why China withdrew from talks is because Russia wants big money to re-open Su-33 production lines and insisted China must buy at least 50 Su-33s which China is reluctant and believes it would become outdated in a few years, the same reason why China decided to modify it instead of continuing to assemble the licensed Su-27, or J-11, its name in China.
The first J-15 prototype made its maiden flight on 31 August 2009, believed to be powered by Russian-supplied AL-31 turbofan engines. Video and still images of the flight were released in July 2010, showing the same basic airframe design as the Su-33.
On 6 May 2010, the aircraft conducted its first takeoff from a simulated ski-jump.
A twin-seat variant made its maiden flight on 4 November 2012.
The initial WS-10 engines were proved to be unreliable under oceanic conditions, and the early J-15s were fitted with Russian-made AL-31F. Several years later, WS-10 entered mass-production and late J-15 variants were gradually replacing their engines with modified WS-10.
An article in the China Signpost believes the J-15 "likely exceeds or matches the aerodynamic capabilities of virtually all fighter aircraft currently operated by regional militaries, with the exception of the U.S. F-22 Raptor", alleging that the J-15 likely possesses a 10% superior thrust-to-weight ratio and a 25% lower wing loading than the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. However, one of the authors of that same article described the J-15 in another as no game changer; the reliance on ski-jump launches and lack of Chinese carrier based refueling capabilities are believed to greatly reduce its effective range. Hu Siyuan of the National Defense University PLA China has said that "the current weak point of the J-15 is its Russia-made Al-31 engines which are less powerful than that of the American F-35 fighter".
Russian military experts have downplayed any significant competition from the J-15 in the global arms market, with Col. Igor Korotchenko of the Ministry of Defence stating in early June 2010, "The Chinese J-15 is unlikely to achieve the same performance characteristics of the Russian Su-33 carrier-based fighter, and I do not rule out the possibility that China could return to negotiations with Russia on the purchase of a substantial batch of Su-33s."
In September 2013, the Beijing-based Sina Military Network (SMN) criticized the capabilities of the J-15 as nothing more than a "flopping fish" incapable of flying from the Liaoning with heavy weapons, “effectively crippling its attack range and firepower,” an unusual move as it contradicted state-owned media reports praising the fighter. SMN reported the J-15 could operate from the carrier equipped with two YJ-83K anti-ship missiles, two short-range PL-8 air-to-air missiles, and four 500 kg (1,100 lb) bombs, but a weapons load exceeding 12 tons would not get it off the ski jump, prohibiting it from carrying heavier munitions such as PL-12 medium-range air-to-air missiles, making it an unlikely match if hostile fighters are encountered when flying strike missions; furthermore, it can only carry two tons of weapons while fully fueled, limiting it to no more than two YJ-83Ks and two PL-8s.
The J-15's chief designer, Sun Cong of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, has said that the J-15 could match the F/A-18 in bomb load, combat radius and mobility. However, in a similar statement, he said more work was required in its electronics and combat systems. He also indicated the lack of mature domestically produced engines as a current weak spot. Rear Admiral Yin Zhuo stated that the aircraft's air combat capabilities were better than that of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. However, he also stated that its ability to attack land and sea targets was slightly inferior to the F/A-18E/F; it is also stated that its electronic equipment meets the standards of those on a fifth generation fighter.
On 25 November 2012, Chinese media announced that two J-15s had made successful arrested landings on the aircraft carrier Liaoning. The first pilot to land on Liaoning was named as Dai Mingmeng (戴明盟). Luo Yang, the aircraft's head of production and designer, died the same day. PLA Daily newspaper indicated the first five naval pilots including Dai conducted J-15 fighter landing and taking off. Test and training program officials confirmed the carrier-borne aircraft and special equipment for the landing flight had gone through strict tests, and fighter jets can be deployed on the carrier.
In December 2013 Chinese media reported that mass production of J-15s in full operational condition with combat markings had begun.
In January 2017, the carrier Liaoning, having returned to the South China Sea after its first deployment into the western Pacific, conducted a series of take-off and landing drills with its force of embarked J-15 fighters.
In July 2018, Lieutenant General Zhang Honghe of the PLAAF stated that China is developing a new carrier-based aircraft that will replace the J-15 due to four crashes and numerous technical problems. One problem with the aircraft is that it is the heaviest carrier-borne fighter in current operation with an empty weight of 17,500 kg compared to the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet's 14,600 kg (though it is less than the F-14 Tomcat's weight of 19,800 kg). Weight problems are compounded when operating off Liaoning, as its STOBAR launch and recovery method further limits payload capacity.
- On 27 April 2016, one J-15 fighter jet crashed due to problems in the flight control system during simulated carrier landings. Pilot Zhang Chao ejected out of the stricken aircraft at the last moment and later died of the injuries sustained.
- On 6 April 2017, Cao Xianjian survived a crash caused by a flight control system malfunction by ejecting from the plane seconds before the J-15 crashed. Cao suffered serious injuries.
- On 17 August 2017, Yuan Wei, a People's Liberation Army navy pilot, coordinated with air traffic controllers to safely land his J-15 after its left engine caught fire, CCTV reported. The fire was sparked by a clash with a flock of birds less than a minute after the plane took off. Firefighters quickly extinguished the fire.
Data from Military Factory : Shenyang J-15 (Flying Shark) - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery
- Crew: 1 or 2
- Length: 21.9 m (71 ft 10 in)
- Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
- Width: 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in) wings folded
- Height: 5.92 m (19 ft 5 in)
- Wing area: 62.04 m2 (667.8 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 17,500 kg (38,581 lb)
- Gross weight: 27,000 kg (59,525 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 33,000 kg (72,753 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Shenyang WS-10 afterburning turbofans, 132 kN (30,000 lbf) thrust each
- Maximum speed: 2,940 km/h (1,827 mph; 1,587 kn)
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.4
- Ferry range: 3,500 km (2,175 mi; 1,890 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 20,000 m (66,000 ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.0081 kN/kg (0.83 lbf/lb)
- 1 × 30 mm GSh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds
- Munitions on twelve external hardpoints, including:
- MIL-STD-1553B bi-directional data bus
- glass cockpit
- LCD screen
- 4-redundant 3-axis fly by wire
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