Soil and grain (Chinese: 社稷; pinyin: shèjì; Japanese: 社稷; rōmaji: shashoku; Korean: 사직; romaja: sajik) was a common political term in the Sinosphere for the state. Altars of soil and grain (millet) were constructed alongside ancestral altars. Chinese monarchs of the Ming and Qing dynasties performed ceremonies of soil and grain to affirm their sovereignty at the Beijing Shejitan, while Korean monarchs of the Joseon dynasty did so at the Seoul Sajikdan. It has also been rendered "gods of soil and grain" in English, owing to its associations of prayer and supernatural possibilities.
- Yang, C. K. Religion in Chinese Society : A Study of Contemporary Social Functions of Religion and Some of Their Historical Factors (1967 ). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.