Shaddah (Arabic: شَدّةshaddah "[sign of] emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid تشديد tashdīd "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate). It is functionally equivalent to writing a consonant twice in the orthographies of languages like Latin, Italian, Swedish, and Ancient Greek, and is thus rendered in Latin script in most schemes of Arabic transliteration, e.g. رُمّان = rummān 'pomegranates'.

00-Taschdid.svg

FormEdit

In shape, it is a small letter س s(h)in, standing for shaddah. It was devised for poetry by al-Khalil ibn Ahmad in the eighth century, replacing an earlier dot.[1]

General
Unicode
Name Transliteration
0651
ّ ّ
shaddah (consonant doubled)

Combination with other diacriticsEdit

When a shaddah is used on a consonant which also takes a fatḥah /a/, the fatḥah is written above the shaddah. If the consonant takes a kasrah /i/, it is written between the consonant and the shaddah instead of its usual place below the consonant.

For example, see the location of the diacritics on the letter ـهـ h in the following words:

Arabic Transliteration Meaning Diacritic Location of the diacritic
يَفْهَمُ yafhamu he understands fatḥah Above the letter
فَهَّمَ fahhama he explained fatḥah Above the shaddah
فَهِمَ fahima he understood kasrah Below the letter
فَهِّمْ fahhim explain! kasrah Between the shaddah and the letter

Significance of marking consonant lengthEdit

Consonant length in Arabic is contrastive: دَرَسَ darasa means "he studied", while دَرَّسَ darrasa means "he taught"; بَكى صَبي bakā ṣabiyy means "a youth cried" while بَكّى الصَّبي bakkā ṣ-ṣabiyy means "a youth was made to cry".

A consonant may be long because of the form of the noun or verb; e.g., the causative form of the verb requires the second consonant of the root to be long, as in darrasa above, or by assimilation of consonants, for example the l- of the Arabic definite article al- assimilates to all dental consonants, e.g. (الصّبي) (a)ṣ-ṣabiyy instead of (a)l-ṣabiyy, or through metathesis, the switching of sounds, for example أَقَلّ aqall 'less, fewer' (instead of *أَقْلَل aqlal), as compared to أَكْبَر akbar 'greater'.

A syllable closed by a long consonant is made a long syllable. This affects both stress and prosody. Stress falls on the first long syllable from the end of the word, hence أَقَلّ aqáll (or, with iʻrāb, aqállu) as opposed to أَكْبَر ákbar, مَحَبّة maḥábbah "love, agape" as opposed to مَعْرِفة maʻrifah '(experiential) knowledge'. In Arabic verse, when scanning the meter, a syllable closed by a long consonant is counted as long, just like any other syllable closed by a consonant or a syllable ending in a long vowel: أَلا تَمْدَحَنَّ a-lā tamdaḥanna 'Will you not indeed praise...?' is scanned as a-lā tam-da-ḥan-na: short, long, long, short, long, short.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Versteegh, 1997. The Arabic language. p 56.