Second Green Revolution

The Second Green Revolution is a change in agricultural production widely thought necessary to feed and sustain the growing population on Earth.[1][2] These calls came about as a response to rising food commodity prices and fears of peak oil, among other factors.[2]

It is named after the Green Revolution.


It is thought that genetic engineering of new crops and foods will take the lead in producing increased crop yield and nutrition.[1]


Bill Gates has been among the proponents of a second green revolution, saying:[3]

Three quarters of the world's poorest people get their food and income by farming small plots of land...if we can make smallholder farming more productive and more profitable, we can have a massive impact on hunger and nutrition and poverty...the charge is clear—we have to develop crops that can grow in a drought; that can survive in a flood; that can resist pests and disease...we need higher yields on the same land in harsher weather."

Gates made these remarks during the World Food Prize. He has made over US$1.4 billion in contributions towards agricultural developments.[2]

The then Union Finance Minister of India, Pranab Mukherjee, made a statement to parliament[when?] that he would explore the possibility of setting up a committee of CMs of the eastern states for a second green revolution in the region and praised Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal for substantial increase in rice production during the current fiscal. Replying to the debate on 2012-13 Union Budget in Rajya Sabha, Mukherjee said due to substantial increase in rice output in the eastern states to the tune of 7 million tonnes in 2011-12, production of the staple grain has risen to a record 10.2 million tonnes. He said this was possible because of special thrust given on realizing the agricultural potential of eastern states.[citation needed]

Accepting the suggestion of JD(U) member N K Singh, Mukherjee said he would explore the possibility of setting up a committee of chief ministers of eastern states "to give further impetus to achieving green revolution" in the region. Singh had suggested setting up of such a panel. He said: "Given the importance of incentivizing agriculture in the eastern region, a chief ministers' committee comprising the CMs from the eastern states should be constituted for a coherent action plan and adequate support from the central government". His suggestion came as one of the eight "tangible actions" which, he thought, would lend credibility to the budgetary announcements. The government had earlier allocated an additional Rs 400 crore in 2011-12 under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana for extending green revolution to the eastern region comprising Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Eastern UP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal. Rice was a priority crop under the scheme. Seeing the success of the scheme, the Budget 2012-13 has raised the allocation to Rs 1,000 crore.[citation needed]

Mukherjee lauded CMs of these states, particularly Bihar CM Nitish Kumar, whose state has doubled rice output to 67.5 lakh tonnes in 2011-12. Handsome increase in rice production has also been witnessed in Jharkhand, West Bengal and other eastern states.[citation needed]

Noting that the achievement has attracted accolades from world over, he said the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Indonesia-based World Rice Institute have commended the eastern states.


Some opponents of the Second Green Revolution believe that social inequity is a major factor leading to food insecurity, one which is not addressed by increasing food production capacity.[4]

Other usageEdit

Others[5] have used the term to refer to a combination of urban agriculture, smaller farm size and organic agriculture with the aim of increasing resource sustainability of crop production.[6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Steinhart, Peter (October 25, 1981). "THE SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION". NYT. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  2. ^ a b c "Plant a second Green Revolution A global food summit is a test of leadership in pushing research on higher crop yields". The Christian Science Monitor. June 3, 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  3. ^ Biello, David (January 4, 2010). "Can the world's richest man feed the planet?". Scientific American.
  4. ^ "Lessons from the Green Revolution". April 8, 2000. Archived from the original on July 14, 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  5. ^ Ross, Clifton. "The Second Green Revolution". Urban Habitat. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  6. ^ Dobbs, Thomas (21 September 2006). "Challenges Facing a Second Green Revolution: Expanding the Reach of Organic Agriculture". Plant Management Network. Retrieved 4 January 2010.