Schering-Plough Corporation was an American pharmaceutical company. It was originally the U.S. subsidiary of the German company Schering AG, which was founded in 1851 by Ernst Christian Friedrich Schering. As a result of nationalization, it became an independent company. In 1971, the Schering Corporation merged with Plough, Inc. (founded by Memphis-based entrepreneur Abe Plough in 1908) to form Schering-Plough. On November 4, 2009 Merck & Co. merged with Schering-Plough with the new company taking the name of Merck & Co.
|Founded||1971 (by merger with Plough, Inc.)|
|Fate||Merged with Merck & Co.|
|Headquarters||Kenilworth, New Jersey|
Final CEO & Chairman
|Revenue||US$18.502 billion (2008)|
|US$1.903 billion (2008)|
|Parent||Merck & Co.|
Schering-Plough manufactured several pharmaceutical drugs, the most well-known of which were the allergy drugs Claritin and Clarinex, an anti-cholesterol drug Vytorin, and a brain tumor drug Temodar. These are now available from Merck & Co.
Schering-Plough was a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA), a membership which is also maintained by the new Merck & Co.
Pharmaceuticals and consumer products edit
Plough, Incorporated was founded by the Memphis, Tennessee area entrepreneur Abe Plough (1892–1984) in 1908. He borrowed $125 from his father to start the business at age sixteen. As a one-man business, he mixed "Plough's Antiseptic Healing Oil," a "sure cure for any ill of man or beast," and sold it off a horse-drawn buggy.
Plough's acquisitions included St Joseph's Aspirin for children, Maybelline cosmetics, and Coppertone skin care products. Plough also had a broadcasting division, operating radio stations in Atlanta, Georgia (WPLO-AM & FM); Baltimore, Maryland (WCAO-AM & FM); Boston, Massachusetts (WCOP-AM & FM); Chicago, Illinois (WJJD-AM & FM); and Memphis, Tennessee (WMPS-AM & FM).
Following the entry of the United States into World War II in 1941, U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered Schering AG's U.S. assets be seized. These became the Schering Corporation. The company was placed under a government administratorship until 1952, when it was released, and its assets sold to the private sector.
In 1957, Schering acquired White Laboratories.
In 1971, the Schering Corporation merged with Plough, Inc. At the time of the merger, Abe Plough became Chairman of the combined company. In 2000, Schering-Plough bought a new campus in Summit, New Jersey from Novartis.
On March 12, 2007, Schering-Plough Corp. purchased Organon BioSciences, the drug unit of Netherlands-based Akzo Nobel, for $14.4 billion, giving the US pharmaceutical company an array of women's health products and numerous late-stage pipelines of experimental medicines. Organon itself was founded in 1923 by Dr. Saal van Zwanenberg, the president of Zwanenberg's Slachterijen en Fabrieken.
Animal health edit
Coopers Animal Health edit
One of Schering-Plough's plants, in Upper Hutt, New Zealand was the largest single site for the production of veterinary vaccines in the world. This was primarily because New Zealand's isolation has formed a natural quarantine, leaving the country free of rabies, foot and mouth, scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and many other livestock diseases. It formerly had echinococcosis, but this has been eradicated. The site was known locally as Coopers Animal Health, a trademark which originated in the 1850s with a British company, Cooper & Nephews; the Coopers brand name was still in use by Schering-Plough in Australia, but not elsewhere.
As a result of the acquisition of Organon BioSciences, Schering-Plough bolstered its animal health business with the Akzo Nobel subsidiary Intervet, obtained control of the active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturer, Diosynth and gained access to human vaccine production through the subsidiary Nobilon. The three companies comprising Organon BioSciences were Organon, Diosynth, and Intervet. HomeAgain continues to use the Intervet name owned by Merck.
Merck Animal Health, MSD Animal Health edit
After the merger of Schering-Plough with Merck the animal health division was still known as Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health. A merger of Merial and Intervet/Schering-Plough was planned in 2010 but was abandoned in March 2011. On June 29, 2011, the company announced that the animal health division would now be known as Merck Animal Health in the United States and Canada; it is now called MSD Animal Health elsewhere in the world.
Chief executives edit
|Willibald H. Conzen||1971 – 1979|
|Richard J. Bennett||1979 – January 31, 1982|
|Robert P. Luciano||February 1, 1982 – December 31, 1995|
|Richard J. Kogan||January 1, 1996 – April 2003|
|Fred Hassan||April 2003 – November 3, 2009|
Medical products edit
Prescription products edit
- Bridion (sugammadex)
- Desloratadine: antihistamine branded Clarinex
- Esmeron/Zemuron (rocuronium)
- Famvir (Famciclovir): for Shingles (herpes zoster) treatment, developed by Novartis
- Intron A & PEG-Intron Interferon alfa-2b: for treatment of hepatitis C
- Levitra (vardenafil): Erectile-dysfunction drug; co-marketed with Bayer, and GlaxoSmithKline
- Livial (tibolone)
- Nasonex and Asmanex (Mometasone furoate)
- Noxafil (posaconazole)
- Quazepam (Doral)
- Remeron/Remeron SolTab (mirtazapine)
- Remicade (infliximab)
- Suboxone (Buprenorphine/Naloxone)
- Temodar (temozolomide)
- Vytorin (ezetimibe/simvastatin): Cholesterol-lowering combination drug
- Zetia (ezetimibe): Cholesterol-lowering drug
Over-the-counter products (Most products sold to Bayer, except Coppertone) edit
- Afrin: A nasal spray decongestant
- Claritin (loratadine): An antihistamine which has less risk of causing drowsiness
- Correctol: A stimulant laxative incorporating dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and yellow phenolphthalein
- Coricidin: A palliative remedy for the common cold, targeted towards individuals with high blood pressure
- Coppertone: sunscreens
- Bain de Soleil: sunscreen
- Solarcaine: Sunburn relief
- Zinka: Colored sunscreen
Veterinary products edit
- Home Again Pet Recovery System: HomeAgain is an advanced pet identification and retrieval system.
- Zubrin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.
- Mometamax: Is indicated for the treatment of canine acute externa and chronic otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis, formerly Pityrosporum canis) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. It contains the strongest steroid (Mometasone furoate) in Veterinary Medicine.
- Eclipse Vaccines: Attenuated modified live feline vaccines available in a multitude of antigen combinations.
- Galaxy Vaccines: Canine vaccines available in a multitude of antigen combinations.
- Optimmune: Ophthalmic ointment (ciclosporin) for the treatment of Pannis and Keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs.
- Orbax: Trade name for orbifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone.
- Otomax: Is indicated for the treatment of canine acute otitis externa and chronic otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis, formerly Pityrosporum canis) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. It contains betamethasone valerate as an anti-inflammatory.
- Banamine: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in horses, cattle and swine in different parts of the world.
- Estrumate: A synthetic prostaglandin used in reproduction of cattle.
- Trivetrin: Trimethoprin sulfate for the treatment of cattle and swine.
- Nuflor-Florfenicol-for treatment of bovine respiratory disease, foot rot and control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease.
Exercise drug edit
Schering-Plough also received much publicity for a drug AICAR which mimics the effects of exercise, having especially potent effects when used alongside another drug GW1516 developed by GlaxoSmithKline.
Collaborative research edit
In addition to internal research and development activities Schering-Plough was also involved in publicly funded collaborative research projects, with other industrial and academic partners. One example in non-clinical safety assessment was the InnoMed PredTox.
In 2004, Schering-Plough was accused of marketing gimmicks and payoffs to doctors for prescribing the company's pharmaceutical products.
- "Abe Plough (1892-1984)". Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Archived from the original on 2015-05-19.
- "Merck US Prescription Products". Merck.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "Merck Consumer Products". Merck.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "The Pharmaceutical Industry in Figures - 2008 Edition". European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA). p. 49. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- "Trade Association Memberships". Merck.com. Archived from the original on November 19, 2010. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
- Federal Communications Commission (FCC) memorandum opinion and order released Tuesday, December 15, 1970 pertaining to the approval of the transfer of control of Plough Broadcasting Co., Inc. from Plough, Inc. to Schering-Plough Corp. Retrieved January 16, 2019
- "Schering-Plough Corp facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Schering-Plough Corp". www.encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions". Answers.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Schering-Plough Acquires Organon BioSciences". Medical Net News. 20 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Singer, Natasha (March 10, 2009). "Merck to Buy Schering-Plough for $41.1 Billion". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- "Merck and Schering-Plough to Complete Merger Today" (Press release). Merck & Co. November 3, 2009. Archived from the original on November 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
- "New Merck Begins Operations" (Press release). Merck & Co. November 4, 2009. Archived from the original on December 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
- Merck & Company, Inc. (November 12, 2009). "Notice of Reorganization Event". Posted on Thomson Reuters web site. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2016. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
- "About Us". Coopers Animal Health. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health". Intervet.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "Merial, Intervet/Schering-Plough Call Off Merger". DVM Newsmagazine. 23 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "Merck Announces New Name for Its Animal Health Division". Merck Animal Health. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Gupta SK, Ellinwood EH; Ellinwood (June 1988). "Liquid chromatographic assay and pharmacokinetics of quazepam and its metabolites following sublingual administration of quazepam". Pharm. Res. 5 (6): 365–8. doi:10.1023/A:1015907611170. PMID 3244647. S2CID 26259786.[dead link]
- "Zubrin". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Mometamax". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Feline Products". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Canine Products". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Optimmune". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Orbax". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Otomax". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Bantamine Paste". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Estrumate Prostaglandin". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Nuflor". Intervet USA. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Mattes, William B. (2008). "Public Consortium Efforts in Toxicogenomics". In Mendrick, Donna L.; Mattes, William B. (eds.). Essential Concepts in Toxicogenomics. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 460. pp. 221–238. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-048-9_11. ISBN 978-1-58829-638-2. PMID 18449490.
- "InnoMed PredTox Member Organizations". Archived from the original on 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- Gardiner Harris, "As Doctors Write Prescriptions, Drug Company Writes a Check", The New York Times (June 27, 2004) Archived September 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Petersen, Melody (18 May 2002). "Drug Maker to Pay $500 Million Fine For Factory Lapses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.