Open main menu

Famciclovir is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections, most commonly for herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug form of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Famciclovir is marketed under the trade name Famvir (Novartis).

Famciclovir
Famciclovir structure.svg
Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˌfæmˈsklˌvɪər/[1]
Trade namesFamvir
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa694038
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B1
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S3 (Pharmacist only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability75–77%
Protein binding20–25%
MetabolismHepatic, circulation, intestinal wall (to penciclovir)
Elimination half-life2–2.3 hours
ExcretionRenal, faecal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.158.713 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC14H19N5O4
Molar mass321.332 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point103 °C (217 °F)
  (verify)

Famciclovir was patented in 1983 and approved for medical use in 1994.[2][3] In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic version of famciclovir. Generic tablets are manufactured by TEVA Pharmaceuticals and Mylan Pharmaceuticals.[4][5]

Contents

Medical usesEdit

Famciclovir is indicated for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles),[6] treatment of herpes simplex virus 2 (genital herpes),[7] herpes labialis (cold sores) in immunocompetent patients[8] and for the suppression of recurring episodes of herpes simplex virus 2. It is also indicated for treatment of recurrent episodes of herpes simplex in HIV patients.

Adverse effectsEdit

Side effects: mild to extreme stomach upset, headaches, mild fever.

HerpesEdit

Early treatmentEdit

Several studies in humans and mice provide evidence that early treatment with famciclovir soon after the first infection with herpes can significantly lower the chance of future outbreaks. Use of famciclovir in this manner has been shown to reduce the amount of latent virus in the neural ganglia compared to no treatment or treatment with valaciclovir.[9][10][11] A review of human subjects treated for five days with famciclovir 250 mg three times daily during their first herpes episode found that only 4.2 percent experienced a recurrence within six months after the first outbreak, a fivefold decrease compared to the 19 percent recurrence in acyclovir-treated patients.[12] Neither drug affected latency if treatment was delayed for several months.[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Famciclovir". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  2. ^ Long, Sarah S.; Pickering, Larry K.; Prober, Charles G. (2012). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Disease. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1502. ISBN 1437727026.
  3. ^ Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 504. ISBN 9783527607495.
  4. ^ "Recent Product Launches, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA". Archived from the original on 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2008-02-21.[better source needed]
  5. ^ "Mylan Launches Generic Version of Famvir® Tablets" (Press release). Mylan. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  6. ^ Tyring SK, Barbarash RA (1995). "Famciclovir for the Treatment of Acute Herpes Zoster: Effects on Acute Disease and Postherpetic Neuralgia". Annals of Internal Medicine. 123 (2): 89–96. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-123-2-199507150-00002. PMID 7778840.
  7. ^ Luber AD, Flaherty JF (1996). "Famciclovir for Treatment of Herpesvirus Infections". Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 30 (9): 978–985. doi:10.1177/106002809603000913. PMID 8876860.
  8. ^ Spruance SL, Bodsworth N (2006). "Single-Dose, Patient-Initiated Famciclovir: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial for Episodic Treatment of Herpes Labialis". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 55 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.02.031. PMID 16781291.
  9. ^ The effects of antiviral therapy on the distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 to ganglionic neurons and its consequences during, immediately following and several months after treatment"[1]"
  10. ^ Famciclovir and Valaciclovir Differ in the Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency in Mice: a Quantitative Study"[2]"
  11. ^ Persistence of Infectious Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in the Nervous System in Mice after Antiviral Chemotherapy"[3]"
  12. ^ Observation May Indicate A Possible Clinical Effect On Latency"[4]"
  13. ^ Thackray AM, Field HJ. (1996). "Differential effects of famciclovir and valaciclovir on the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus in a murine infection model including reactivation from latency". J. Infect. Dis. 173 (2): 291–299. doi:10.1093/infdis/173.2.291. PMID 8568288.

External linksEdit