Scavenger endothelial cell

The term scavenger endothelial cell (SEC) was initially coined to describe a specialized sub-group of endothelial cells in vertebrates that express a remarkably high blood clearance activity [1]. The term SEC has now been adopted by several scientists [2][3][4][5][6][7]


SEC in vertebratesEdit

The term «scavenger endothelial cell», first appearing in the scientific literature in 1999 [8], was coined to distinguish a highly specialized subclass of endothelium in vertebrates that was observed to express a remarkably avid blood clearance activity. Blood borne waste macromolecules are known to be efficiently cleared from the blood circulation via scavenger receptors (stabilin-1, stabilin-2), the mannose receptor, and the Fc gamma receptor IIb2 of the mammalian liver sinusoidal endothelial cells [9]. Ligands that are efficiently cleared from blood by receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in mammals, are also avidly cleared by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in birds, reptiles and amphibia, as in mammals. However, in bony fish (teleosts) the same macromolecules accumulate in either heart endocardium (e.g. in the Atlantic cod) or kidney sinusoids (e.g. in carp and salmonid fishes), but not in liver [10]. Furthermore, in animal species of phylogenetically older vertebrate classes, i.e. cartilaginous (e.g. ray) and jawless (lamprey and hagfish) fishes, only specialized endothelial cells in gills exhibit the same active blood clearance capability as observed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in the four land-based vertebrate classes. In all these cases the clearance cells are not macrophages, but a special type of endothelial cells that have been named scavenger endothelial cells to distinguish them functionally from other types of vertebrate endothelia. Recently is was shown that the endothelial cells in the caudal vein plexus of the embryonic zebrafish, also exhibit characteristic scavenger functions. These SECs, but not macrophages, avidly and preferentially clear colloidal waste and viral particles [11], as well as endogenous exosomes that are specifically internalized in a dynamin- and scavenger receptor dependent pathway to be targeted to lysosomes for degradation. Anionic nanoparticles are primarily taken up by these zebrafish SECs by the scavenger receptor, stabilin-2 in this process [12], which is also a signature scavenger receptor of mammalian liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

SEC analogues in invertebratesEdit

Although true endothelial cells are only found in vertebrates , insect hemocytes and nephrocytes have similar scavenger functions to vertebrate macrophages and SECs, sharing the task of waste clearance and defense against foreign intruders [13]. Colloidal vital dyes, such as ammonia carmine and trypan blue, are rapidly and preferentially taken up by insect pericardial and garland nephrocytes [14]. Nephrocytes, but not hemocytes of the common blow fly (Calliphora) avidly endocytose and degrade ligands that are also recognized by stabilin-2 of mammalian scavenger endothelial cells [15]. In Drosophila, nephrocytes remove microbiota-derived peptidoglycan from systemic circulation to maintain immune homeostasis[16]. Nephrocytes that strongly resemble insect nephrocytes are found in several other major invertebrate classes [15]

The dual-cell principle of waste clearanceEdit

It appears that the major scavenger cell systems of vertebrates and invertebrates are based on a dual-cell principle of waste clearance [15]. In vertebrates, distinct populations of scavenger endothelial cells represent the professional pinocyte, clearing the blood of a wide range of soluble macromolecules and small particles (<200 nm) by clathrin-mediated endocytosis [17], while the macrophage represents the professional phagocyte, eliminating larger particles (>200 nm) [18][19].

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Seternes, T; Sørensen, K; Smedsrød, B (28 May 2002). "Scavenger endothelial cells of vertebrates: a nonperipheral leukocyte system for high-capacity elimination of waste macromolecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (11): 7594–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.102173299. PMC 124295. PMID 12032328.
  2. ^ Verweij, FJ; Revenu, C; Arras, G; Dingli, F; Loew, D; Pegtel, DM; Follain, G; Allio, G; Goetz, JG; Zimmermann, P; Herbomel, P; Del Bene, F; Raposo, G; van Niel, G (25 February 2019). "Live Tracking of Inter-organ Communication by Endogenous Exosomes In Vivo". Developmental Cell. 48 (4): 573–589.e4. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2019.01.004. PMID 30745143. no-break space character in |title= at position 69 (help)
  3. ^ Das, D; Aradhya, R; Ashoka, D; Inamdar, M (1 May 2008). "Macromolecular uptake in Drosophila pericardial cells requires rudhira function". Experimental Cell Research. 314 (8): 1804–10. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.02.009. PMID 18355807.
  4. ^ Enomoto, K; Nishikawa, Y; Omori, Y; Tokairin, T; Yoshida, M; Ohi, N; Nishimura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Li, Q (December 2004). "Cell biology and pathology of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells". Medical Electron Microscopy. 37 (4): 208–15. doi:10.1007/s00795-004-0261-4. PMID 15614445.
  5. ^ Kamimoto, M; Rung-Ruangkijkrai, T; Iwanaga, T (June 2005). "Uptake ability of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and enhancement by lipopolysaccharide". Biomedical Research (Tokyo, Japan). 26 (3): 99–107. doi:10.2220/biomedres.26.99. PMID 16011302.
  6. ^ Wu, G; Li, Z (September 2009). "Glycoprotein clearance is rapid and suppressed by mannan in chicken embryos". Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. 65 (3): 235–41. doi:10.1007/BF03180576. PMID 20119818.
  7. ^ Campbell, F; Bos, FL; Sieber, S; Arias-Alpizar, G; Koch, BE; Huwyler, J; Kros, A; Bussmann, J (27 March 2018). "Directing Nanoparticle Biodistribution through Evasion and Exploitation of Stab2-Dependent Nanoparticle Uptake". ACS Nano. 12 (3): 2138–2150. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b06995. PMC 5876619. PMID 29320626.
  8. ^ Smedsrød, Bård; Seternes, Tore; Sørensen, Karen; Lindhe, Örjan; Sveinbjørnson, Baldur. Scavenger endothelial cells (Volume 7 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid. pp. 147–152.
  9. ^ Sørensen, KK; Simon-Santamaria, J; McCuskey, RS; Smedsrød, B (20 September 2015). "Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells". Comprehensive Physiology. 5 (4): 1751–74. doi:10.1002/cphy.c140078. PMID 26426467.
  10. ^ Seternes, T; Sørensen, K; Smedsrød, B (28 May 2002). "Scavenger endothelial cells of vertebrates: a nonperipheral leukocyte system for high-capacity elimination of waste macromolecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (11): 7594–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.102173299. PMC 124295. PMID 12032328.
  11. ^ Campbell, F; Bos, FL; Sieber, S; Arias-Alpizar, G; Koch, BE; Huwyler, J; Kros, A; Bussmann, J (27 March 2018). "Directing Nanoparticle Biodistribution through Evasion and Exploitation of Stab2-Dependent Nanoparticle Uptake". ACS Nano. 12 (3): 2138–2150. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b06995. PMC 5876619. PMID 29320626.
  12. ^ Verweij, FJ; Revenu, C; Arras, G; Dingli, F; Loew, D; Pegtel, DM; Follain, G; Allio, G; Goetz, JG; Zimmermann, P; Herbomel, P; Del Bene, F; Raposo, G; van Niel, G (25 February 2019). "Live Tracking of Inter-organ Communication by Endogenous Exosomes In Vivo". Developmental Cell. 48 (4): 573–589.e4. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2019.01.004. PMID 30745143. no-break space character in |title= at position 69 (help)
  13. ^ Das, D; Aradhya, R; Ashoka, D; Inamdar, M (1 May 2008). "Macromolecular uptake in Drosophila pericardial cells requires rudhira function". Experimental Cell Research. 314 (8): 1804–10. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.02.009. PMID 18355807.
  14. ^ Palm, NB (1952). Storage and excretion of vital dyes in insects. With special regard to trypan blue (Almqvist Wiksell ed.). Stockholm: Arkiv für Zoologi. pp. 195–272.
  15. ^ a b c Sørensen, KK; McCourt, P; Berg, T; Crossley, C; Le Couteur, D; Wake, K; Smedsrød, B (15 December 2012). "The scavenger endothelial cell: a new player in homeostasis and immunity". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 303 (12): R1217-30. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00686.2011. PMID 23076875.
  16. ^ Troha, Katia; Nagy, Peter; Pivovar, Andrew; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Hartley, Paul S.; Buchon, Nicolas (2019-09-16). "Nephrocytes Remove Microbiota-Derived Peptidoglycan from Systemic Circulation to Maintain Immune Homeostasis". Immunity. 51 (4): 625–637.e3. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2019.08.020. ISSN 1097-4180. PMID 31564469.
  17. ^ Rejman, J; Oberle, V; Zuhorn, IS; Hoekstra, D (1 January 2004). "Size-dependent internalization of particles via the pathways of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis". The Biochemical Journal. 377 (Pt 1): 159–69. doi:10.1042/BJ20031253. PMC 1223843. PMID 14505488.
  18. ^ Seternes, T; Sørensen, K; Smedsrød, B (28 May 2002). "Scavenger endothelial cells of vertebrates: a nonperipheral leukocyte system for high-capacity elimination of waste macromolecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (11): 7594–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.102173299. PMC 124295. PMID 12032328.
  19. ^ Foroozandeh, P; Aziz, AA (25 October 2018). "Insight into Cellular Uptake and Intracellular Trafficking of Nanoparticles". Nanoscale Research Letters. 13 (1): 339. doi:10.1186/s11671-018-2728-6. PMC 6202307. PMID 30361809.