Scandoromani language

Scandoromani is a North Germanic based Para-Romani. It is spoken by the Scandinavian Romanisæl Travellers, a Romani minority community, in Norway (c. 100–150 elderly speakers),[1] and formerly in Sweden.

Scandoromani
Native toNorway, Sweden, Denmark
Native speakers
c. 100–150 (2014)[1]
Speakers mostly elderly. More people speak Swedish with some Roma vocabulary.[1]
Official status
Official language in
recognised minority language in
 Norway (1993)
 Sweden (1999)
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
rmg – Traveller Norwegian
rmu – Tavringer Romani (Sweden)
rmd – Traveller Danish
Glottologtrav1236  Norwegian
tavr1235  Swedish
trav1237  Danish
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Subforms are referred to as:

  • Traveller Norwegian (tavringens rakripa, lit. 'Traveller's language'), [2])[3] Norwegian norsk romani (Norwegian Romani), in Norway;
  • Tavringer Romani,[4] Traveller Swedish or Tattare,[5] Swedish svensk romani (Swedish Romani), in Sweden;
  • Traveller Danish[6] in Denmark.

Like Angloromani in Britain and Caló in Spain, Scandoromani draws upon a (now extinct) vocabulary of inflected Romani. Much of the original Romani grammar, however, has been lost to the users, and they now communicate in Swedish or Norwegian grammar.

There is no standardised form of Scandoromani, so variations exist in vocabulary, pronunciation, and usage, depending on the speaker. In print, Scandoromani words are often written with Swedish (S) or Norwegian (N) letters (ä, æ, ø, å) and letter combinations to represent Romani sounds, e.g., tj- (/ɕ/) or kj- (/ç/ alt. //) to represent the Romani č // and čh /tʃʰ/. Some examples of Scandoromani variant spellings are: tjuro[7] (S) / kjuro[2] (N) 'knife'; gräj[7] (S) / grei[2] (N) 'horse'.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Carling, Lindell & Ambrazaitis (2014:5)
  2. ^ a b c Karlsen, Ludvig. "Tavringens Rakripa: Romanifolkets Ordbok". Landsorganisasjonen for Romanifolket (in Norwegian and Traveller Norwegian). Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  3. ^ "Traveller Norwegian in the Language Cloud". Ethnologue. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  4. ^ "Tavringer Romani in the Language Cloud". Ethnologue. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  5. ^ "Tavringer Romani". LLOW Language Server. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
  6. ^ "Traveller Danish". Ethnologue. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Resande Folkets Riksorganisation (2006)

ReferencesEdit

  • Carling, Gerd; Lindel, Lenny; Ambrazaitis, Gilbert (2014), Scandoromani: Remnants of a Mixed Language, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 9789004266445
  • Resande Folkets Riksorganisation (2006), Ordlista i resandespråket romani (in Swedish and Traveller Norwegian) (2nd ed.), Malmö: Föreningen Resande Folkets Riksorganisation, ISBN 91-631-9668-9

Suggested further readingEdit

External linksEdit