The Sarju (Kumaoni: सरज्यू, Hindi: सरयू), also known as Sarayu, is a major river draining Central Kumaon region[4] in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.[5] Originating from Sarmul, Sarju flows through the cities of Kapkot, Bageshwar and Seraghat before joining Mahakali at Pancheshwar. The Sarju is the largest tributary of the Sharda River.[6] The river forms the South-eastern border between the districts of Pithoragarh and Almora.[7][8] Temperate and sub-Tropical forests cover the entire Catchment area of the River.[9]

Sarju
Kumaoni: सरज्यू, Hindi: सरयू
Sarju River
Sarju River
Location
Country India
StateUttarakhand
regionKumaon
Physical characteristics
Source 
 • locationSarmul, 15 km south of Nanda Kot[1]
 • coordinates30°7′58″N 80°1′56″E / 30.13278°N 80.03222°E / 30.13278; 80.03222
 • elevation3,000 m (9,800 ft)
Mouth 
 • location
Sharda River,[2] Uttarakhand, India
 • coordinates
29°26′38″N 80°14′33″E / 29.44389°N 80.24250°E / 29.44389; 80.24250
 • elevation
429 m (1,407 ft)[3]
Length130 km (81 mi)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 • leftRamganga, Punger
 • rightGomati, Panar, Lahor

Etymology edit

The name is a noun derived from the Sanskrit root सृ sṛ "to flow". saráyu- as a masculine noun means "air, wind". In the feminine it is the name of the river.

Course edit

The Sarju rises at a place known as Sarmul (or Sarmool), which is located in the extreme north of the Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand. The source of the river is situated at 30°7′58″N 80°1′56″E / 30.13278°N 80.03222°E / 30.13278; 80.03222 on the southern slope of a ridge of the Nanda Kot and is separated on the east from the source of Ramganga and on the west from the sources of Kuphini (the eastern branch of Pindar river) by spurs leading down from the mass culminating at the Nanda Kot peak.[10] It flows initially around 50 km (31 mi) in southwest direction by the Kumaon Himalayas where it receives Kanalgadh stream from the right and Punger river from the left. About 2 km (1.2 mi) further downstream, the river receives Lahor river from the right.[11] Then the river turns towards south and flows through the city of Bageshwar, where it receives Gomati from the right.[12][13]

The Sarju flows to the lower 65 km in mainly southeastern direction.[14] Much of the drainage of Gangolihat region of Pithoragarh district flows into the river via Bhadrapatigad stream, which flows into it from the left. Similarly, several streams join it from right draining much of the Chaugarkha region situated in Almora district; notable ones being Gatgadh, Jalairgadh, Bhaurgadh, Alaknadi and Saniaungadh.[15] About 55 km (34 mi) downstream from its confluence with Gomati in Bageshwar, it receives the Panar river from the right. A small river Jaingan gets merge into Sarju river at Seraghat in Almora-Pithoragarh border. About five Km further downstream, at 20 km (12 mi) above its mouth, Ramganga meets the left side on the Sarju at Rameshwar, situated at an elevation of 1,500 ft (460 m). Finally Sarju reaches at Pancheshwar at the Nepalese border to Sharda River after travelling a total of 130 km (81 mi).

Geology edit

Sarju transfers a sedimental load of 498.4 kg/sec during the peak of raining season.[16]

Water Quality Characteristics of Sarju during water years 1987 and 1988[17][18]
Parameter pH Alkalinity Hardness Conductivity Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Chloride Sulphate
Value 7.9 111.2 101.32 137.11 18.89 11.11 3.50 1.80 8.10 2.41

Tributaries edit

 
confluence of Gomati and Sarju at Bageshwar.

Gomati edit

Gomati river originates in the higher reaches of Bhatkot and merges into Sarju at Bageshwar.[19] It flows through the Katyur Valley which constitutes a major Agricultural zone of Kumaon.[20]

Kuloor edit

The Kuloor river rises above the Bhadrkali Temple near Sani-Udiyar, and flows through Rawatsera, Bans Patan and Ganai Gangoli, before joining the Sarju at Seraghat.

Punger edit

Punger river rises near village Sangar and joins Sarju from the left at Sartana.[21]

Lahor edit

Lahor is a small river that joins Sarju from the right.[22]

Panar edit

Panar originates on the northern slopes of the Mornaula Range, south-east of Almora.[23] Panar joins Sarju near Rameshwar.[24]

Ramganga edit

Ramganga East is the largest tributary of Sarju. It originates from the Namik Glacier in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand and flows towards Southeast.[25][26] The river is fed by numerous small and big rivers and finally joins river Sarju at Rameshwar.[27]

Gallery edit

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Sati, Uttaranchal: Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities, pg-79
  2. ^ Sharda River is known as Kali Ganga in mountainous regions of Kumaon
  3. ^ Sati, Uttaranchal: Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities, pg-79
  4. ^ Negi, Kumaun: The Land and the People, pg-82
  5. ^ Conder, India, pg-238
  6. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-18
  7. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-170
  8. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-331
  9. ^ Negi, Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers, pg-120
  10. ^ Walton, Almora: A Gazetteer, pg-283
  11. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-182
  12. ^ Budhawar, The Call of the Mountains: Uttrakhand Explored, pg-39
  13. ^ Guneratne, Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya, pg-134
  14. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-182
  15. ^ Walton, Almora: A Gazetteer, pg-284
  16. ^ Bhatt, Ecology of the Mountain Waters, pg-48,49
  17. ^ All values in mg/L except ph and conductivity
  18. ^ Bhatt, Ecology of the Mountain Waters, pg-97
  19. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  20. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  21. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-183
  22. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-182
  23. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  24. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  25. ^ Negi, Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers, pg-115
  26. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-18
  27. ^ Negi, Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers, pg-48

Bibliography edit