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Santiago Canyon Fire

The Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 (previously called the Great Fire of 1889) was a massive wildfire in California, which burned large parts of Orange County, Riverside County, and San Diego County during the last week of September 1889.[3] Until 2018, it was possibly the single largest wildfire in the recorded history of California,[1][2] with at least 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) of land burned.[3] In mid-August 2018, the Ranch Fire in the Mendocino Complex Fire surpassed the Santiago Canyon Fire in size.[4][5]

Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889
LocationSouthern California
Date(s)September 24–30, 1889
Burned area300,000–310,000 acres (1,214–1,255 km2)
CauseHuman (accidental)
Buildings destroyedUnknown
Non-fatal injuriesUnknown

Assistant Regional Forester (USFS) L.A. Barrett, who wrote a 1935 report on California wildfires, said of it: "I was living in Orange County at the time and well remember the great fire reported herein from September 24 to 26. Nothing like it occurred in California since the National Forests have been administered. In fact in my 33 years in the Service I have never seen a forest or brush fire to equal it. This one covered an enormous scope of country and burned very rapidly."[non-primary source needed]

Conditions leading up to the 1889 fire included a much longer and more severe annual drought than usual, with rains largely ceasing in March and less than 0.4 inches (1 cm) of precipitation being recorded for the 5½ months prior (records from the National Archives). This was coupled with multiple katabatic wind events (known as “northers” or Santa Anas) that month, one of which occurred about 10 days prior and likely added to the dryness of fuels. Temperatures during the week prior remained high and were coupled with several severe fires in San Diego County in which “at least 10,000 acres [40 km2] have burned over, a dwelling house consumed and other property destroyed”.[6]


In addition to the Santiago Canyon Fire, there were several other significant fires fanned by the same gale force Santa Ana winds in San Diego and San Bernardino counties. The Santiago Canyon Fire was the largest and has been estimated as being greater than 308,000 acres (1,250 km2).[1] Another wildfire in San Diego County at the time has been estimated to have been greater than 60,000 acres (240 km2).[7] The Orange County fire burned through areas of chaparral and coastal sage scrub, as well as a number of farm fields in the Santa Ana Valley, where farmers attempted to control the fire by plowing ahead of it.[8] A detailed analysis of the fire can be found in an article by Keeley and Zedler.[1]


USFS Regional Forester L.A. Barrett (1935), in reference to the size stated that "Nothing like it occurred in California since the National Forests have been administered. In fact in my 33 years in the Service I have never seen a forest or brush fire to equal it." Since his career included the 1932 Matilija Fire, which was over 220,000 acres (890 km2), it can be inferred that the wildfire was much larger than 220,000 acres.[1] A thorough study of newspaper accounts suggests it was on the order of 310,000 acres (1,300 km2), but some reports indicate that the Santiago Canyon Fire may have reached a size of 495,000 acres (2,000 km2), especially if it had merged with other large wildfires that were concurrently burning in San Diego County.[1] Other estimates have claimed a smaller size.[2]


One of the first reports of the fire was delivered by telegraph. Riverside Daily Press and Tribune reported on the fire by telegraph as follows:

Daily San Diegan described the extent and damage wrought by the fire:

Daily Courier reported on the events of the Santiago Canyon Fire and other nearby wildfires in Southern California:

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ a b c d e f Keeley, J.E; Zedler, P.H. (2009). "Large, high-intensity fire events in southern California shrublands: debunking the fine-grain age-patch mosaic model" (PDF). Ecological Applications. 19 (1): 69–94. doi:10.1890/08-0281.1. PMID 19323174.
  2. ^ a b c Goforth, B.R.; Minnich, R.A. (2007). "Evidence, exaggeration, and error in historical accounts of chaparral wildfires in California" (PDF). Ecological Applications. 17 (3): 779–790. doi:10.1890/06-0831. PMID 17494396. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. ^ a b Brittny Mejia (December 15, 2017). "Thomas fire could surpass 1889 Santiago Canyon fire, believed to be California's largest". Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  4. ^ Chris Wilson; David Johnson; Jennifer Calfas (16 August 2018). "California's Massive Wildfires Are Nearly 10 Times the Size of San Francisco". Time. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  5. ^ Chane Croucher (7 August 2018). "400, Firefighters Battle Mendocino Complex Fire, The Largest Blaze In California History". Newsweek. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  6. ^ a b Daily San Diegan. 1889-09-30. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ Halsey, R.W. (2008). Fire, Chaparral, and Survival in Southern California. San Diego. CA: Sunbelt Publications. ISBN 978-0932653697.
  8. ^ Orange News. 1889-09-02. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ Riverside Daily Press and Tribune. 1889-09-25. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ Daily Courier. San Bernardino. 1889-09-27. Missing or empty |title= (help)


External linksEdit