SM U-35 (Germany)

  (Redirected from SM U-35)

SM U-35 was a German U 31-class U-boat which operated in the Mediterranean Sea during World War I. It ended up being the most successful U-boat participating in the war, sinking 220 merchant ships for a total of 505,119 gross register tons (GRT).

The German U-boat U-35 cruising in the Mediterranean, April 1917.jpg
SM U 35, Commander Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière, cruising in the Mediterranean
History
German Empire
NameU-35
Ordered29 March 1912
BuilderGermaniawerft, Kiel
Yard number195
Laid down20 December 1912
Launched18 April 1914
Commissioned3 November 1914
FateSurrendered 26 November 1918. Broken up at Blyth in 1919–20
General characteristics
Class and typeGerman Type U 31 submarine
Displacement
  • 685 t (674 long tons) (surfaced)
  • 878 t (864 long tons) (submerged)
Length
Beam
  • 6.32 m (20 ft 9 in) (o/a)
  • 4.05 m (13 ft 3 in) (pressure hull)
Draught3.56 m (11 ft 8 in)
Installed power
Propulsion
  • 2 × shafts
  • 2 × 1.60 m (5 ft 3 in) propellers
Speed
  • 16.4 knots (30.4 km/h; 18.9 mph) (surfaced)
  • 9.7 knots (18.0 km/h; 11.2 mph) (submerged)
Range
  • 8,790 nmi (16,280 km; 10,120 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) (surfaced)
  • 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) (submerged)
Test depth50 m (164 ft 1 in)
Boats & landing
craft carried
1 dinghy
Complement4 officers, 31 enlisted
Armament
Service record
Part of:
  • II Flotilla
  • Unknown start - 1 August 1915
  • Pola / Mittelmeer Flotilla
  • 23 August 1915 - 11 November 1918
Commanders:
Operations: 17 patrols
Victories:
  • 220 merchant ships sunk
    (505,119 GRT)
  • 3 warships sunk
    (2798 tons)
  • 3 auxiliary warships sunk
    (30,581 GRT)
  • 8 merchant ships damaged
    (35,384 GRT)
  • 1 warship damaged
    (450 tons)
  • 1 auxiliary warship damaged
    (1,055 GRT)

Her longest serving captain was Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière. Under his command, U-35 sank 191 ships, making him the most successful submarine commander in history.

DesignEdit

German Type U 31 submarines were double-hulled ocean-going submarines similar to Type 23 and Type 27 subs in dimensions and differed only slightly in propulsion and speed. They were considered very good high seas boats with average manoeuvrability and good surface steering.[5]

U-35 had an overall length of 64.70 m (212 ft 3 in), her pressure hull was 52.36 m (171 ft 9 in) long. The boat's beam was 6.32 m (20 ft 9 in) (o/a), while the pressure hull measured 4.05 m (13 ft 3 in). Type 31s had a draught of 3.56 m (11 ft 8 in) with a total height of 7.68–8.04 m (25 ft 2 in–26 ft 5 in). The boats displaced a total of 971 tonnes (956 long tons); 685 t (674 long tons) when surfaced and 878 t (864 long tons) when submerged.[5]

U-35 was fitted with two Germania 6-cylinder two-stroke diesel engines with a total of 1,850 metric horsepower (1,361 kW; 1,825 bhp) for use on the surface and two Siemens-Schuckert double-acting electric motors with a total of 1,200 PS (883 kW; 1,184 shp) for underwater use. These engines powered two shafts each with a 1.60 m (5 ft 3 in) propeller, which gave the boat a top surface speed of 16.4 knots (30.4 km/h; 18.9 mph), and 9.7 knots (18.0 km/h; 11.2 mph) when submerged. Cruising range was 8,790 nautical miles (16,280 km; 10,120 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) on the surface, and 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) under water. Diving depth was 50 m (164 ft 1 in).[5]

The U-boat was armed with four 50 cm (20 in) torpedo tubes, two fitted in the bow and two in the stern, with carried 6 torpedoes. In 1915 U-35 was equipped with a 8.8 cm (3.5 in) Uk L/30 deck gun, which was replaced with a 10.5 cm (4.1 in) gun in 1916–17. The boat's complement was 4 officers and 31 enlisted men.[5]

Service historyEdit

U-35's keel was laid on 20 December 1912 at the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel. Its delivery date was supposed to be 1 March 1914, but it was delayed due to development problems with its diesel engines. U-35 officially entered service on 3 November 1914, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Waldemar Kophamel. The lead engineer was Hans Fechter. It sailed with the II Flottille, stationed in Heligoland.

U-35 completed its first two deployments in reconnaissance actions in the North Sea. In its following three actions, U-35 sunk 17 merchant ships, for a total of 25,716 GRT. Later, it was paired with U-34 after a battle near Cattaro, Montenegro, and sunk two merchant ships for a total of 3,724 GRT. U-35 made two more voyages and destroyed 13 more merchant ships totaling 51,594 GRT. These included on 23 October 1915 the British transport Marquette in the Aegean Sea. She was carrying an Ammunition Column of the 29th Division; and also staff of the 1st New Zealand Stationary Hospital, despite a British hospital ship Grantully Castle sailing on the same route on the same day.[6]

On 9 November 1915, with the help of sister U-34, U-35 sank the SS Californian, a cargo ship best known for its inaction during the sinking of the RMS Titanic on 15 April 1912, despite being the closest ship in the area. U-35 delivered a coup-de-grace after U-34 had attacked Californian earlier. She was under tow from a French patrol boat when U-35 moved in to finish her off.[7] Coincidentally, U-35 would also come within close proximity of the ill-fated Titanic's sister ship RMS Olympic on an unknown date in 1916, but "conditions made attack impossible."[8]

On 13 November 1915, Kptlt. de la Perière took command of U-35. He led 15 missions, primarily in the Mediterranean, and sank 187 merchant ships for a total of 417,682 GRT. Additionally, U-35 sank the British gunboat HMS Primula on 29 February 1916 and the French gunboat Rigel on 2 October 1916.

On 26 February 1916, she successfully torpedoed and sank the Armed merchant cruiser La Provence, carrying 1,800 French troops, near Cerigo Island with a loss of 990 men.[9]

U-35's fourteenth patrol (26 July to 20 August 1916) under de la Perière stands as the most successful submarine patrol of all time. During that period, 54 merchant ships totaling 90,350 GRT were sunk.

She also sank on 4 October 1916, the French transport ship SS Gallia, leading to the death of between 600 and 1,800 men.

Kptlt. Ernst von Voigt took command of U-35 on 17 March 1918. He undertook two patrols, an enemy engagement and a redeployment cruise, between 7 September and 9 October 1918, but both were promptly broken off because of engine damage. On 14 October 1918, Kptlt. Heino von Heimburg took command and U-35 was transferred to Kiel.

FateEdit

After World War I ended, U-35 was transferred to England and docked in Blyth from 1919 to 1920, then broken up.

Original documents from Room 40Edit

The following is a verbatim transcription of the recorded activities of SM U-35 known to British Naval Intelligence, Room 40 O.B.:[10]


" SM U-35.

Kptlt. Kophamel til January 1916, then Kptlt. von Arnauld de la Periere til 1918, then Kptlt. von Voigt. Was completed at Kiel early in November 1914 and did trials at the School from 15 November 1914 – 12 January 1915. She then left for service in the North Sea, and joined the 2nd Half Flotilla.

  • 19–21 January 1915. Bight patrol.
  • ? 23–26 January 1915. Bight patrol.
  • 1 February 1915. Bight patrol.
  • 7–20 March 1915. Channel via Dover to Irish Sea.
  • 29 April – 2 May 1915. North Sea. Sank 1 S.S. Returned with engine trouble.
  • 29 May – 23 June 1915. Northabout to S. of Ireland. 5 S.S., 9 sailing vessels, sunk.
  • 4–23 August 1915. To Mediterranean, Northabout, sank 3 sailing vessels, and arrived Cattaro 23 August 1915, where she joined the Pola-Cattaro Flotilla.
  • 12–22 September 1915. Left Cattaro and sank 3 S.S., one near C. Mattapan, another S of Crete. Returned to Cattaro.
  • Early in October 1915. Was on a cruise of which no details are known.
  • 30 October 1915. – 13 November 1915. In eastern Mediterranean, sank 11 steamers, also on 5 November HMS Tara, the Egyptian C.G. cruiser Abbas and damaged Noor-El-Bahr, all in Gulf of Sollum. On 8 November submarine was attacked by a French armed trawler.
  • Middle of December 1915 to 6 January 1916. In central Mediterranean. Sank 5 S.S. and fired 2 torpedoes at HMS Mimosa.
  • 21 February 1916 – 4 March 1916. In Central Mediterranean, sank 3 S.S. and attacked Olympic on two occasions, was engaged by HMS Marguerite on 24 February
  • 27 March – 17 April 1916. In Spanish waters, sank about 8 S.S.
  • June 1916. On a cruise in this month U-35 put into Carthagena on 21 June. She sank in all 19 steamships, 21 sailing vessels and attacked but did not sink 7 ships including 3 armed British ships. Her sinkings were made in a period of 19 days, mostly in the area of Sardinia, Menorca, Barcelona and the Gulf of Genoa.
  • 27 July – 15 August 1916. In a period of 20 days while on a cruise from Cattaro to the Spanish waters of the western Mediterranean, U-35 sank 29 S.S., 24 sailing vessels. Attacked 8 S.S. and a French cruiser, and damaged but did not sink 3 other ships, a tonnage of 91,000 tons being claimed. 14 September – 9 October 1916. In her usual sphere, which may be roughly defined as off the Spanish Mediterranean coast, sank about 19 S.S., 4 sailing vessels, and 3 other vessels. She also attacked 4 S.S. 29/30 December 1916 – 13 January 1917. In central Mediterranean. Sank 4 S.S. on a line between Malta and Straits of Otranto.
  • 6 February – 2 March 1917. Sank 7 S.S., 6 sailing vessels in western Mediterranean.
  • 30 March to 5/6 May 1917 (approx). Sank 3 steamers, 3 sailing vessels and another merchant ship in the western Mediterranean. Passed through the Straits of Gibraltar on the night 12/13 April, and in the fortnight succeeding sank 24 S.S., 1 sailing vessel in the western approaches to the Straits. After returning to the Mediterranean she sank 1 more S.S. 80,000 tons sinkings were claimed. A professional cinematographer was on board during this cruise, and the films taken were exhibited in Great Britain in 1919.
  • 4/5 October – 6 November 1917. Left Cattaro and went through the Straits of Gibraltar about the night 13/14 October. On 15 October was possibly attacked by HMS City of Belfast, and on 16 October by TB95. On re-entering the Mediterranean sank about 4 ships, and on 6 November was attacked by the French submarine Faraday.
  • 7/8 December 1917 – 1 January 1918. Left Cattaro and on 15 December was bombed by a seaplane. Passed the Straits of Gibraltar on the night of the 16/17 December. Re-entered the Mediterranean on the night of the 21/22 December. Returned to Cattaro having sunk 5 S.S. and 1 sailing vessel. During the period in which she was west of the Straits she was possibly operating against French ships, carrying foodstuffs, from the west coast of Morocco. A total of 28,000 tons was claimed for this cruise.
  • February 1918. U-35 was on a further cruise for which 26,000 tons sinkings were claimed. After this, her famous Commander von Arnauld de la Periere was transferred, and Kptlt. Ernst von Voigt took over the boat.
  • A cruise in August and early September 1918 yielded 3 steamers.
  • In October 1918 she returned to Kiel by the Sound and on 27 November 1918 was surrendered at Harwich.

Note: S.S. = Steam Ship; S.V. = Sailing Vessel; Northabout, Muckle Flugga, Fair I. = around Scotland; Sound, Belts, Kattegat = via North of Denmark to/from German Baltic ports; Bight = to/from German North Sea ports; success = sinking of ships

Koerver, Hans Joachim (2009). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol II., The Fleet in Being. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-77-0.

Summary of raiding historyEdit

 
SM U-35 on the surface in the Mediterranean
Ships sunk or damaged by SM U-35[11]
Date Name Nationality [Note 1] Tonnage Fate
9 March 1915 Blackwood   United Kingdom 1,230 Sunk
9 March 1915 Gris Nez   France 208 Sunk
15 March 1915 Hyndford   United Kingdom 4,286 Damaged
30 April 1915 Laila   Norway 748 Sunk
2 June 1915 Cubano   Norway 4,352 Sunk
4 June 1915 George & Mary   United Kingdom 100 Sunk
6 June 1915 Sunlight   United Kingdom 1,433 Sunk
7 June 1915 Trudvang   Norway 1,041 Sunk
8 June 1915 Express   United Kingdom 115 Sunk
8 June 1915 La Liberte   France 302 Sunk
8 June 1915 Strathcarron   United Kingdom 4,347 Sunk
8 June 1915 Susannah   United Kingdom 115 Sunk
10 June 1915 Thomasina   Russian Empire 1,869 Sunk
12 June 1915 Bellglade   Norway 664 Sunk
12 June 1915 Crown of India   United Kingdom 2,034 Sunk
13 June 1915 Diamant   France 324 Sunk
13 June 1915 Hopemount   United Kingdom 3,300 Sunk
13 June 1915 Pelham   United Kingdom 3,534 Sunk
10 August 1915 Baltzer   Russian Empire 343 Damaged
10 August 1915 Francois   France 2,212 Sunk
10 August 1915 Morna   Norway 1,512 Sunk
17 September 1915 Ravitailleur   France 2,815 Sunk
19 September 1915 Ramazan   United Kingdom 3,477 Sunk
20 September 1915 Linkmoor   United Kingdom 4,306 Sunk
18 October 1915 Scilla   Kingdom of Italy 1,220 Sunk
23 October 1915 Marquette   United Kingdom 7,057 Sunk
3 November 1915 Woolwich   United Kingdom 2,936 Sunk
5 November 1915 HMS Tara   Royal Navy 1,862 Sunk
5 November 1915 Abbas   Egyptian Coast Guard 298 Sunk
5 November 1915 Nour-el-bahr   Egyptian Coast Guard 450 Damaged
6 November 1915 Caria   United Kingdom 3,032 Sunk
6 November 1915 Clan Macalister   United Kingdom 4,835 Sunk
6 November 1915 Lumina   United Kingdom 6,218 Sunk
7 November 1915 Moorina   United Kingdom 4,994 Sunk
8 November 1915 Den of Crombie   United Kingdom 4,949 Sunk
8 November 1915 Sir Richard Awdry   United Kingdom 2,234 Sunk
8 November 1915 Wacousta   Norway 3,521 Sunk
9 November 1915 Californian   United Kingdom 6,223 Sunk
17 January 1916 Sutherland   United Kingdom 3,542 Sunk
18 January 1916 Marere   United Kingdom 6,443 Sunk
20 January 1916 Trematon   United Kingdom 4,198 Sunk
26 February 1916 La Provence   French Navy 13,753 Sunk
27 February 1916 Giava   Kingdom of Italy 2,755 Sunk
28 February 1916 Masunda   United Kingdom 4,952 Sunk
29 February 1916 HMS Primula   Royal Navy 1,250 Sunk
23 March 1916 Minneapolis   United Kingdom 13,543 Sunk
13 June 1916 Maria C.   Kingdom of Italy 77 Sunk
13 June 1916 Motia   Kingdom of Italy 500 Sunk
13 June 1916 San Francesco Di Paola   Kingdom of Italy 43 Sunk
14 June 1916 Antonia V   Kingdom of Italy 132 Sunk
14 June 1916 Giosue   Kingdom of Italy 20 Sunk
14 June 1916 San Francesco   Kingdom of Italy 28 Sunk
14 June 1916 Tavolara   Kingdom of Italy 701 Sunk
15 June 1916 Adelina   Kingdom of Italy 170 Sunk
15 June 1916 Annette   Kingdom of Italy 112 Sunk
15 June 1916 Audace   Kingdom of Italy 144 Sunk
15 June 1916 S. Maria   Kingdom of Italy 515 Sunk
15 June 1916 Sardinia   United Kingdom 1,119 Sunk
16 June 1916 Dolmetta M   Kingdom of Italy 48 Sunk
16 June 1916 Era   Kingdom of Italy 1,078 Sunk
16 June 1916 Eufrasia   Kingdom of Italy 71 Sunk
16 June 1916 Gafsa   United Kingdom 3,922 Sunk
16 June 1916 Rondine   Kingdom of Italy 112 Sunk
17 June 1916 Poviga   Kingdom of Italy 3,360 Sunk
18 June 1916 Aquila   Norway 2,191 Sunk
18 June 1916 Beachy   United Kingdom 4,718 Sunk
18 June 1916 Olga   France 2,964 Sunk
18 June 1916 Rona   United Kingdom 1,312 Sunk
19 June 1916 France Et Russie   France 329 Sunk
19 June 1916 Mario C.   Kingdom of Italy 398 Sunk
23 June 1916 Giuseppina   Kingdom of Italy 1,872 Sunk
23 June 1916 Herault   France 2,299 Sunk
24 June 1916 Canford Chine   United Kingdom 2,398 Sunk
24 June 1916 Checchina   France 184 Sunk
24 June 1916 Daiyetsu Maru   Japan 3,184 Sunk
24 June 1916 San Francesco   Kingdom of Italy 1,060 Sunk
24 June 1916 Saturnina Fanny   Kingdom of Italy 1,568 Sunk
25 June 1916 Clara   Kingdom of Italy 5,503 Sunk
25 June 1916 Fournel   France 2,047 Sunk
27 June 1916 Mongibello   Kingdom of Italy 4,059 Sunk
27 June 1916 Pino   Kingdom of Italy 1,677 Sunk
27 June 1916 Roma   Kingdom of Italy 2,491 Sunk
27 June 1916 Windermere   United Kingdom 2,292 Sunk
29 June 1916 Carlo Alberto   Kingdom of Italy 312 Sunk
29 June 1916 Giuseppina   Kingdom of Italy 214 Sunk
29 June 1916 Teano   United Kingdom 1,907 Sunk
28 July 1916 Dandolo   Kingdom of Italy 4,977 Sunk
30 July 1916 Britannic   United Kingdom 3,487 Sunk
30 July 1916 Ethelbryhta   United Kingdom 3,084 Sunk
30 July 1916 Giuseppe Marta   Tunisia 111 Sunk
30 July 1916 Katholm   Denmark 1,324 Sunk
31 July 1916 Citta Di Messina   Kingdom of Italy 2,464 Sunk
31 July 1916 Einar   Norway 135 Sunk
31 July 1916 Emilio G.   Kingdom of Italy 166 Sunk
31 July 1916 Erling   Norway 122 Sunk
31 July 1916 Generale Ameglio   Kingdom of Italy 222 Sunk
1 August 1916 Heighington   United Kingdom 2,800 Sunk
2 August 1916 Eugenia   Kingdom of Italy 550 Sunk
2 August 1916 Neptune   France 151 Sunk
3 August 1916 Tricoupis   Greece 2,387 Sunk
4 August 1916 Favonian   United Kingdom 3,049 Sunk
4 August 1916 Siena   Kingdom of Italy 4,372 Sunk
4 August 1916 Teti   Kingdom of Italy 2,868 Sunk
4 August 1916 Tottenham   United Kingdom 3,106 Sunk
5 August 1916 Achilleus   Greece 843 Sunk
5 August 1916 Mount Coniston   United Kingdom 3,018 Sunk
7 August 1916 Newburn   United Kingdom 3,554 Sunk
7 August 1916 Trident   United Kingdom 3,129 Sunk
8 August 1916 Imperial   United Kingdom 3,818 Sunk
8 August 1916 Speme   Kingdom of Italy 1,229 Sunk
9 August 1916 Antiope   United Kingdom 2,973 Sunk
9 August 1916 Ganekogorta Mendi   Spain 3,061 Sunk
9 August 1916 Sebastiano   Kingdom of Italy 3,995 Sunk
10 August 1916 Temmei Maru   Japan 3,360 Sunk
11 August 1916 Pagasarri   Spain 3,287 Sunk
12 August 1916 Gina   Kingdom of Italy 443 Sunk
12 August 1916 Nereus   Kingdom of Italy 3,980 Sunk
12 August 1916 Regina Pacis   Kingdom of Italy 2,228 Sunk
12 August 1916 Saint Gaetan (aux)   France 125 Sunk
13 August 1916 Balmoral   Kingdom of Italy 2,542 Sunk
13 August 1916 Eurasia   Kingdom of Italy 1,898 Sunk
13 August 1916 Francesco Saverio   Kingdom of Italy 214 Sunk
13 August 1916 Ivar   Denmark 2,139 Sunk
14 August 1916 Emilia   Kingdom of Italy 319 Sunk
14 August 1916 Francesca   Kingdom of Italy 161 Sunk
14 August 1916 Henriette B.   Kingdom of Italy 176 Sunk
14 August 1916 Ida   Kingdom of Italy 242 Sunk
14 August 1916 Lavinia   Kingdom of Italy 243 Sunk
14 August 1916 Louis B.   Kingdom of Italy 212 Sunk
14 August 1916 Pausania   Kingdom of Italy 107 Sunk
14 August 1916 Rosario   Kingdom of Italy 188 Sunk
14 August 1916 San Francesco Di Paolo   Kingdom of Italy 112 Sunk
14 August 1916 San Giovanni Battista   Kingdom of Italy 1,066 Sunk
14 August 1916 San Giuseppe Patriarca   Kingdom of Italy 62 Sunk
15 August 1916 Augusta   Kingdom of Italy 523 Sunk
15 August 1916 Candida Altieri   Kingdom of Italy 282 Sunk
15 August 1916 Vergine Di Pompei   Kingdom of Italy 146 Sunk
16 August 1916 Madre   Kingdom of Italy 665 Sunk
17 August 1916 Swedish Prince   United Kingdom 3,712 Sunk
18 August 1916 Erix   Kingdom of Italy 923 Sunk
19 September 1916 Doride   Kingdom of Italy 1,250 Sunk
19 September 1916 Teresa   Kingdom of Italy 270 Sunk
22 September 1916 Garibaldi   Kingdom of Italy 1,374 Sunk
22 September 1916 Giovanni Zambelli   Kingdom of Italy 2,485 Sunk
23 September 1916 Charterhouse   United Kingdom 3,021 Sunk
24 September 1916 Bronwen   United Kingdom 4,250 Sunk
24 September 1916 Bufjord   Norway 2,284 Sunk
24 September 1916 Nicolo   Kingdom of Italy 5,466 Sunk
25 September 1916 Benpark   Kingdom of Italy 3,842 Sunk
26 September 1916 Newby   United Kingdom 2,168 Sunk
26 September 1916 Roddam   United Kingdom 3,218 Sunk
26 September 1916 Stathe   United Kingdom 2,623 Sunk
27 September 1916 Rallas   United Kingdom 1,752 Sunk
27 September 1916 Secondo   United Kingdom 3,912 Sunk
27 September 1916 Vindeggen   Norway 2,610 Sunk
29 September 1916 Venus   Kingdom of Italy 3,976 Sunk
2 October 1916 Rigel   French Navy 1,250 Sunk
3 October 1916 Samos   Greece 1,186 Sunk
4 October 1916 Birk   Norway 715 Sunk
4 October 1916 Gallia   French Navy 14,966 Sunk
5 October 1916 Aurora   Kingdom of Italy 2,806 Sunk
5 October 1916 Vera   Sweden 2,308 Sunk
5 January 1917 Lesbian   United Kingdom 2,555 Sunk
5 January 1917 Salvatore Padre   Kingdom of Italy 200 Sunk
6 January 1917 Hudworth   United Kingdom 3,966 Sunk
7 January 1917 Mohacsfield   United Kingdom 3,678 Sunk
8 January 1917 Andoni   United Kingdom 3,188 Sunk
8 January 1917 Lynfield   United Kingdom 3,023 Sunk
11 February 1917 Assunta   Kingdom of Italy 132 Sunk
12 February 1917 Lyman M. Law   United States 1,300 Sunk
13 February 1917 Percy Roy   United Kingdom 110 Sunk
14 February 1917 Mery   Russian Empire 178 Sunk
14 February 1917 Oceania   Kingdom of Italy 4,217 Sunk
15 February 1917 Buranda   United Kingdom 3,651 Damaged
16 February 1917 Oriana   Kingdom of Italy 3,132 Sunk
16 February 1917 Prudenza   Kingdom of Italy 3,307 Sunk
17 February 1917 Pier Accavan Ubert   Kingdom of Italy 112 Sunk
18 February 1917 Giuseppe   Kingdom of Italy 1,856 Sunk
18 February 1917 Guido T   Kingdom of Italy 324 Sunk
18 February 1917 Skogland   Sweden 3,264 Sunk
23 February 1917 Longhirst   United Kingdom 3,053 Sunk
23 February 1917 Mont Viso   France 4,820 Damaged
24 February 1917 Dorothy   United Kingdom 3,806 Sunk
24 February 1917 Prikonisos   Greece 3,537 Sunk
3 April 1917 Ardgask   United Kingdom 4,542 Sunk
4 April 1917 Marguerite   United States 1,553 Sunk
4 April 1917 Parkgate   United Kingdom 3,232 Sunk
7 April 1917 Maplewood   United Kingdom 3,239 Sunk
11 April 1917 Miss Morris   United Kingdom 156 Sunk
12 April 1917 India   Greece 2,933 Sunk
13 April 1917 Giuseppe Accame   Kingdom of Italy 3,224 Sunk
13 April 1917 Odysseus   Greece 3,463 Sunk
13 April 1917 Stromboli   Kingdom of Italy 5,466 Sunk
14 April 1917 Patagonier   United Kingdom 3,832 Sunk
15 April 1917 Panaghi Drakatos   Greece 2,734 Sunk
17 April 1917 Brisbane River   United Kingdom 4,989 Sunk
17 April 1917 Corfu   United Kingdom 3,695 Sunk
17 April 1917 Fernmoor   United Kingdom 3,098 Sunk
18 April 1917 Trekieve   United Kingdom 3,087 Sunk
19 April 1917 Sowwell   United Kingdom 3,781 Sunk
20 April 1917 Leasowe Castle   United Kingdom 9,737 Damaged
20 April 1917 Lowdale   United Kingdom 2,260 Sunk
20 April 1917 Nentmoor   United Kingdom 3,535 Sunk
23 April 1917 Bandiera E Moro   Kingdom of Italy 2,086 Sunk
24 April 1917 Bien Aime Prof. Luigi   Kingdom of Italy 265 Sunk
24 April 1917 Nordsøen   Denmark 1,055 Sunk
24 April 1917 Torvore   Norway 1,667 Sunk
24 April 1917 Vilhelm Krag   Norway 3,715 Sunk
27 April 1917 Triana   Spain 748 Damaged
13 October 1917 Alavi   United Kingdom 3,627 Sunk
13 October 1917 Despina G. Michalinos   Greece 2,851 Sunk
13 October 1917 Doris   Kingdom of Italy 3,979 Sunk
13 October 1917 Lilla   Kingdom of Italy 2,819 Sunk
15 October 1917 HMS City Of Belfast   Royal Navy 1,055 Damaged
18 October 1917 Lorenzo   Kingdom of Italy 2,498 Sunk
19 October 1917 Ikoma Maru   Japan 3,048 Sunk
25 October 1917 Fannie Prescott   United States 404 Sunk
29 October 1917 Namur   United Kingdom 6,694 Sunk
31 October 1917 Cambric   United Kingdom 3,403 Sunk
2 November 1917 Maria Di Porto Salvo   Kingdom of Italy 91 Sunk
2 November 1917 San Francesco Di Paola G.   Kingdom of Italy 91 Sunk
11 December 1917 Persier   United Kingdom 3,874 Sunk
20 December 1917 Fiscus   United Kingdom 4,782 Sunk
20 December 1917 Waverley   United Kingdom 3,853 Sunk
23 December 1917 Pietro   Kingdom of Italy 3,860 Sunk
24 December 1917 Turnbridge   United Kingdom 2,874 Sunk
25 December 1917 Argo   United Kingdom 3,071 Sunk
25 December 1917 Cliftondale   United Kingdom 3,811 Sunk
25 December 1917 Nordpol   Norway 2,053 Sunk
23 February 1918 Humberto   Portugal 274 Sunk
26 February 1918 Pytheas   Norway 2,690 Sunk
27 February 1918 Kerman   United Kingdom 4,397 Damaged
27 February 1918 Marconi   United Kingdom 7,402 Damaged
6 March 1918 Daiten Maru   Japan 4,555 Sunk
7 March 1918 Begona No.4   Spain 1,850 Sunk
9 March 1918 Silverdale   United Kingdom 3,835 Sunk
Sunk:
Damaged:
Total:
538,498
36,889
575,387

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Waldemar Kophamel (Pour le Mérite)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  2. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière (Pour le Mérite)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Ernst von Voigt". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Heino von Heimburg (Pour le Mérite)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, p. 6.
  6. ^ Cloud over Marquette by J M Smith (1990, Auckland NZ) ISBN 047301081X
  7. ^ "Californian".
  8. ^ "The SS Californian and Dundee: Scotland's Forgotten Leviathan". 18 October 2018.
  9. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: La Provence sunk". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  10. ^ National Archives, Kew: HW 7/3, Room 40, History of German Naval Warfare 1914-1918 (Published below – Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918)
  11. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U 35". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 16 March 2009.

BibliographyEdit

  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
  • Eberhard Rössler: Geschichte des deutschen U-Bootbaus – Band 1. Bernard & Graefe Verlag 1996, ISBN 3-86047-153-8
  • Bodo Herzog: Deutsche U-Boote 1906-1966. Manfred Pawlak Verlags GmbH, Herrschingen 1990, ISBN 3-88199-687-7
  • Spindler, Arno (1966) [1932]. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. 5 Vols. Berlin: Mittler & Sohn. Vols. 4+5, dealing with 1917+18, are very hard to find: Guildhall Library, London, has them all, also Vol. 1-3 in an English translation: The submarine war against commerce.
  • Beesly, Patrick (1982). Room 40: British Naval Intelligence 1914-1918. London: H Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-10864-2.
  • Halpern, Paul G. (1935). A Naval History of World War I. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85728-498-0.
  • Roessler, Eberhard (1997). Die Unterseeboote der Kaiserlichen Marine. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5963-7.
  • Schroeder, Joachim (2002). Die U-Boote des Kaisers. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-6235-4.
  • Koerver, Hans Joachim (2008). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol I., The Fleet in Action. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-76-3.
  • Koerver, Hans Joachim (2009). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol II., The Fleet in Being. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-77-0.
  • Bogedain, Clemens (2016). Lothar v. Arnauld de la Perière. Erfolgreichster U-Bootkommandant der Seekriegsgeschichte – Ein vergessener "Kriegsheld"?. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-11256-7.

External linksEdit