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Rudolf Albert Raff (November 10, 1941 – January 5, 2019) was an American biologist, and James H. Rudy Professor of Biology at Indiana University.[4] He was known for research in, and promotion of, evolutionary developmental biology. He was also director of the Indiana Molecular Biology Institute.[5][6]

Rudy Raff
Rudolf A. Raff, June 2011.jpg
Raff in 2011
Born(1941-11-10)November 10, 1941
DiedJanuary 5, 2019(2019-01-05) (aged 77)
Bloomington, Indiana, United States
Alma mater
Scientific career
FieldsEvolutionary developmental biology
InstitutionsIndiana University, National Naval Medical Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Raff was born in Shawnigan, Quebec[7] in 1941 to a family of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. He graduated from Pennsylvania State University with a B.S. in 1963, and from Duke University with a Ph.D. in 1967. He died in 2019 in Bloomington Hospital, Indiana, at the age of 77.[8]



  • with Thomas C. Kaufman, Illustrated by E.C. Raff, Embryos, Genes, and Evolution: The Developmental-Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, Macmillan 1983, ISBN 0-02-397500-8
  • The shape of life: genes, development, and the evolution of animal form, University of Chicago Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-226-70266-7
  • William R. Jeffery, Rudolf A. Raff (eds), Time, space, and pattern in embryonic development, A.R. Liss, 1983, ISBN 978-0-8451-2201-3
  • Rudolf A. Raff, Once We All Had Gills, Growing Up Evolutionist in an Evolving World, Indiana University Press 2012, ISBN 978-0-253-00235-8


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