The genetics of Rubus is extremely complex, so that it is difficult to decide on which groups should be recognized as species. There are many rare species with limited ranges such as this. Further study is suggested to clarify the taxonomy.
- Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map
- Bailey, Liberty Hyde. 1941. Gentes Herbarum; Occasional Papers on the Kinds of Plants 5(2): 99–101, figure 37
- Flora of North America, Rubus Linnaeus, 1754. Bramble
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