The theatrical makeup used by Michael Crawford when he played the Phantom of the Opera started with a latex skullcap. More latex strips were then added for the disfigured face. The latex was then covered and coloured with cosmetics for the full effect.
- Arabella Mazzuki; Raymond Siljander; Simon Mitchell (2015), "Full-head Silicone Masks and Related Silicone Prosthetics for Disguise", Undercover Disguise Methods for Investigators, Charles C Thomas, p. 133, ISBN 9780398090821
- "Actors' Rubber Masks to Replace Make-Up", Popular Science Monthly: 44, October 1934
- Sharon Parsons (2000), Magnificent Masks, p. 21, ISBN 0748757309