Rosenberg self-esteem scale
The Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), developed by the sociologist Morris Rosenberg, is a self-esteem measure widely used in social-science research. It uses a scale of 0–30 where a score less than 15 may indicate a problematic low self esteem.
The RSES is designed similar to the social-survey questionnaires. It is a ten-item Likert-type scale with items answered on a four-point scale—from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Five of the items have positively worded statements and five have negatively worded ones. The scale measures state self-esteem by asking the respondents to reflect on their current feelings. The original sample for which the scale was developed consisted of 5,024 high-school juniors and seniors from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is considered a reliable and valid quantitative tool for self-esteem assessment.
The RSES has been translated and adapted to various languages, such as Persian, French, Chinese, Italian, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. The scale is extensively used in cross-cultural studies in up to 53 different nations.
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- Santos, P.J., & Maia, J. (2003). Análise factorial confirmatória e validaçao preliminar de uma versao portuguesa da escala de auto-estima de Rosenberg. Psicologia: Teoria, Investigaçao e Prática, 2, 253-268.
- José Martín-Albo, Juan L. Núñez, José G. Navarro, & Fernando Grijalvo (2007) The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Translation and Validation in University Students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol. 10, No. 2, 458-467
- Schmitt, D.P., & Allik, J. (2005). Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global self esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 623-642.