Robertson graph

In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Robertson graph or (4,5)-cage, is a 4-regular undirected graph with 19 vertices and 38 edges named after Neil Robertson.[2][3]

Robertson graph
Robertson graph hamiltonian.svg
The Robertson graph is Hamiltonian.
Named afterNeil Robertson
Automorphisms24 (D12)
Chromatic number3
Chromatic index5[1]
Book thickness3
Queue number2
Table of graphs and parameters

The Robertson graph is the unique (4,5)-cage graph and was discovered by Robertson in 1964.[4] As a cage graph, it is the smallest 4-regular graph with girth 5.

It has chromatic number 3, chromatic index 5, diameter 3, radius 3 and is both 4-vertex-connected and 4-edge-connected. It has book thickness 3 and queue number 2.[5]

The Robertson graph is also a Hamiltonian graph which possesses 5,376 distinct directed Hamiltonian cycles.

Algebraic propertiesEdit

The Robertson graph is not a vertex-transitive graph and its full automorphism group is isomorphic to the dihedral group of order 24, the group of symmetries of a regular dodecagon, including both rotations and reflections.[6]

The characteristic polynomial of the Robertson graph is




  1. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Class 2 Graph". MathWorld.
  2. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Robertson Graph". MathWorld.
  3. ^ Bondy, J. A. and Murty, U. S. R. Graph Theory with Applications. New York: North Holland, p. 237, 1976.
  4. ^ Robertson, N. "The Smallest Graph of Girth 5 and Valency 4." Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 70, 824-825, 1964.
  5. ^ Jessica Wolz, Engineering Linear Layouts with SAT. Master Thesis, University of Tübingen, 2018
  6. ^ Geoffrey Exoo & Robert Jajcay, Dynamic cage survey, Electr. J. Combin. 15, 2008.