Richelieu Levoyer

Richelieu Artieda Levoyer (June 17, 1930 – December 21, 2015) was an Ecuadorian army general and politician. He was the son of painter Jorge Levoyer and educator Maria Delia Artieda.[1]

Richelieu Levoyer Artieda
Born(1930-06-17)June 17, 1930
Quito, Ecuador
DiedDecember 21, 2015(2015-12-21) (aged 85)
Quito, Ecuador
Allegiance Ecuador
Service/branchEcuadorian Army Artillery
Years of service1946-1982
RankDivisional General
Commands heldFirst Division of the Army of Ecuador
Battles/warsPaquisha War

Levoyer was the Southern Front Commander during the Paquisha War. He later served as Government Minister where he deployed a systematic plan for the destruction of prisons where human rights were being violated. He also proposed the "Return to the Constitution Plan" that ended the 1976–1979 dictatorship. He served as Professor and then Director of the centers of Ecuadorian military studies. He became Director of the School for Improvement of the Ecuadorian Army. He led the creation of the National Institute of Advanced Studies. He served as Sub-secretary of Industries focused on developing small business.

Military educationEdit

He studied at the "Eloy Alfaro" Military School. Then he went to specialized courses in the School of the Americas, Panama. He attended the Staff Study Centre of the Brazilian Army. He enrolled at the Inter-American Defense College in the United States. He attended the War Academy.

Military leaderEdit

Levoyer was the Southern Front Commander during the Paquisha War between Ecuador and Peru in 1981 where he led 25,000 soldiers. César Alarcón described his role in the war, saying:

"He displayed an intense work in defense of territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ecuador in the Amazonia compared with the surrender of whom on October 26, 1998 subjected our country to the Peruvian claims imposed by force through the null Rio de Janeiro Protocol of January 29, 1942."

Political careerEdit

As Minister of Government (1976), Levoyer organized a political dialogue bringing together popular organizations and new political tendencies. As a result, indigenous people for the first time entered the Carondelet Palace (seat of the Presidency), and later formed the organization known as CONAIE).

As a result of the dialogue, Levoyer announced the "State Law Restructuring Plan". First, Ecuadorian people would choose a Constitution. The new constitution was passed in 1978. Besides, it had been promulgated an Electoral Law and other on Political Parties.

The Ecuadorian right wing sought to have Levoyer removed from office. They lacked the power to oust him from the military and instead pushed to have him assigned to the Ecuadorian embassy in the United States.


He was elected Member of the National Congress (1984–1988). He became the driving force behind the Ecuadorian presence in Antarctica and created and the Ecuadorian Antarctic Program.[2] He also led the passage of two laws honoring the soldiers of the wars of 1941 and 1981.


He served as president of the Military Organization for Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean (OMIDELAC). This organization played an important role in promoting democratic systems in Latin America, opposing the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet of Chile. OMIDELAC was invited as an election observer in several Latin American countries.

He is currently a member of Fundación "Eloy Alfaro" de Estudios Geopolíticos y Estratégicos(FEGES).


He said, "If you want to make a major change in the country, power must be obtained, but not getting it for itself −what would be simple egotism and ambition−, but to change things, and once installed there, and with the support of a unpolluted reputation earned day by day, then, and only then, take on any real and profound change that will be possible with the support of public consensus, with which we will have an undoubted success and beneficial to the poorest of our country."

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ EL UNIVERSO. "Muere el general Richelieu Levoyer, quien propuso el retorno a la democracia en Ecuador". El Universo.
  2. ^ "Instituto Antártico Ecuatoriano – INAE".

Alarcón Costta, César Augusto, "Biographical Dictionary of Ecuador", Editorial Raíces, Quito, 2010. page 638. ISBN 978-9978-326-03-9. This Dictionary is in Spanish.