Directive 2009/28/EC is a European Union directive which mandates levels of renewable energy use within the European Union from 2009 to 2021. The directive was published on 23 April 2009 and amends and repealed Directive 2001/77/EC. The directive required that 20 percent of the energy consumed within the European Union is renewable. This target is pooled among the member states. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 repeals Directive 2009/28/EC on 1 July 2021.
|European Union directive|
|Title||Renewable Energy Directive|
|Made by||European Parliament and Council|
|Journal reference||L 140, 5 June 2009, pp. 16–62|
|Replaces||Directive 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC|
|Amends||Directive 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC|
EU leaders had already reached agreement in March 2007 that, in principle, 20% of the bloc's final energy consumption should be produced from renewable energy sources by 2020 as part of its drive to cut carbon dioxide emissions. This policy later became part of the EU 2020 Energy Strategy dated 10 November 2010. The key objectives of the strategy are to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20%, to increase the share of renewable energy to 20%, and to achieve energy savings of 20% or more. The targets are mutually dependent.
Members states were obliged to notify the European Commission by 30 June 2010 of a National Renewable Energy Action Plan which sets out the road map of the trajectory. Member states also have to submit progress reports explaining their implementation of the directive and their progress towards their targets, as is required by article 22 of the directive.
National targets for renewable energy sourcesEdit
The overall EU target for renewable energy use is 20% by the year 2020. Targets for renewable energy in each country vary from a minimum of 10% in Malta to 72% of total energy use in Iceland.
|National overall targets||2005 share||2020 target|
|* Iceland and Norway have submitted Renewable Energy Action Plans to the EU Commission with 2020 targets and details of their development steps.|
- Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Brussels, Belgium: European Council. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
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