Raja Biru

Raja Biru or Ratu Biru (Thai: รายาบีรู; Malay: راتو بيرو; b. c. 1566–1624) ruled the Sultanate of Patani (1616–1624), succeeding her sister Raja Hijau. She was the second of three daughters of Sultan Mansur Shah who ruled the country. She was succeeded by her sister Raja Ungu. In Malay, her name means "Blue" or "Blue Queen."


Raja Biru was around 50 when she became queen in 1616. During her reign, Patani faced increasing threats from the Siamese. In response to the threats, she was said to have ordered a man of Chinese descent named Tok Kayan to create three large cannons.[1] One of these Phaya Tani was later seized by the Siamese and is now located in Bangkok.[2][3] Raja Biru persuaded the Kelantan Sultanate in the south to become incorporated into Patani.[4]

Raja Biru died in 1624. She was succeeded by her younger sister Raja Ungu who was married to the Sultan of Pahang and had return from Pahang after her husband died.


  1. ^ Syukri, Ibrahim (1985). History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani. Ohio Uninversity Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-0896801233.
  2. ^ Bougas, Wayne (1990). "Patani in the Beginning of the XVII Century". Archipel. 39: 133. doi:10.3406/arch.1990.2624.
  3. ^ Le Roux, Pierre (1998). "Bedé kaba' ou les derniers canons de Patani". Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient. 85: 125–162. doi:10.3406/befeo.1998.2546.
  4. ^ Amirell, Stefan (2011). "The Blessings and Perils of Female Rule: New Perspectives on the Reigning Queens of Patani, c. 1584–1718". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 42 (2): 303–23. doi:10.1017/S0022463411000063.
  • A. Teeuw & D. K. Wyatt. Hikayat Patani: The Story of Patani. Bibliotheca Indonesica, 5. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1970.
  • Ahmad Fathy al-Fatani. Pengantar Sejarah Patani. Alor Setar: Pustaka Darussalam, 1994.
  • Wayne A. Bougas. The Kingdom of Patani: Between Thai and Malay Mandalas. Occasional Paper on the Malay World, no. 12. Selangor: Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1994.