RAS syndrome (where "RAS" stands for "redundant acronym syndrome", making the phrase "RAS syndrome" homological) is the use of one or more of the words that make up an acronym (or other initialism) in conjunction with the abbreviated form. This means, in effect, repeating one or more words from the acronym. Three common examples are "PIN number" / "VIN number" (the "N" in PIN and VIN stands for "number") and "ATM machine" (the "M" in ATM stands for "machine"). The term RAS syndrome was coined in 2001 in a light-hearted column in New Scientist.
Many style guides advise against usage of these redundant acronyms in formal contexts, but they are widely used in colloquial speech.
Examples of RAS phrases include:
Reasons for useEdit
Although there are many instances in editing where removal of redundancy improves clarity, the pure-logic ideal of zero redundancy is seldom maintained in human languages. Bill Bryson says, "Not all repetition is bad. It can be used for effect ..., or for clarity, or in deference to idiom. 'SALT talks' and 'HIV virus' are technically redundant because the second word is already contained in the preceding abbreviation, but only the ultra-finicky would deplore them. Similarly, in 'Wipe that smile off your face' the last two words are tautological—there is no other place a smile could be—but the sentence would not stand without them."
A limited amount of redundancy can improve the effectiveness of communication, either for the whole readership or at least to offer help to those readers who need it. A phonetic example of that principle is the need for spelling alphabets in radiotelephony. Some instances of RAS syndrome can be viewed as syntactic examples of the principle. The redundancy may help the listener by providing context and decreasing the "alphabet soup quotient" (the cryptic overabundance of abbreviations and acronyms) of the communication.
Acronyms and initialisms from foreign languages are often treated as unanalyzed morphemes when they are not translated. For example, in French, "le protocole IP" (the Internet Protocol protocol) is often used, and in English "please RSVP" (roughly "please respond please") is very common. This occurs for the same linguistic reasons that cause many toponyms to be tautological. The tautology is not parsed by the mind in most instances of real-world use (in many cases because the foreign word's meaning is not known anyway; in others simply because the usage is idiomatic).
Sometimes the presence of repeated words does not create a redundant phrase. For example, "laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) light" is light produced by a light amplification process. Similarly, "OPEC countries" are two or more member states of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, whereas "OPEC" by itself denotes the overall organization.
- Clothier, Gary (8 November 2006). "Ask Mr. Know-It-All". The York Dispatch.
- Newman, Stanley (December 20, 2008). "Sushi by any other name". Windsor Star. p. G4. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012.
- "Feedback" (fee required). New Scientist. No. 2285. 2001-04-07. p. 108. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- Garner, Bryan A. (2000) The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
- "Why The DC Comics Name Actually Makes No Sense". ScreenRant. 5 October 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
- "What Does DC Comics Stand For?". ScreenRant. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
- Nordquist, Richard. "RAS Syndrome: Redundant Acronym Syndrome Syndrome". ThoughtCo.
- Brians, Paul. "LCD display". Common Errors in English Usage. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Do You Suffer From RAS Syndrome?". NPR.org.
- "15 Redundant Words That Make You Sound Ignorant". rd.com. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
- Bryson, Bill (2002), Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words, ISBN 0-7679-1043-5.
- "LINGUIST List 4.532: Last Posting: Acronyms". Linguistlist.org. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- The dictionary definition of RAS syndrome at Wiktionary